Black History in the United States A Timeline by the 7th Grade
1441 - The Beginning of theDiaspora• The Diaspora was the spreading of Africans to Europe, Asia,and America• While it can be the result of voluntary migration, it was often the result of slave trade
1441- Why the Diaspora Happened• The Diaspora started as early as the 9th century, but 1441 marks the beginning of European slave trade (Portuguese)• Thousands of people were taken from their home and brought to America and other countries.
Why the Diaspora is Important• Because of the diaspora, there are elements of African culture everywhere
1691- First Slaves to the UnitedStates – the Middle Passage• Africans had been traded as slaves since the early 1400s by the Portugues• In 1691, the first slaves arrived in the U.S.• They were considered cargo, so they were treated as such• They were shipped in really cramped spaces and treated poorly
1691-First Slaves to the United States - The Middle Passage• The Middle Passage was a part of triangle trade, the trade route through the Atlantic• It was known as a period of transition between Africa and America• African communities were split up, so they were forced to create new bonds of kinship• These relationships changed African identity and culture in the new world
1657- George Fox• George Fox was a Quaker who believed everyone should be equal.• He gave speeches to the slave owners.• He had a meeting with 300 Quakers who signed a petition against slave trade.
1657 - Speaking out loud• Fox was the first person to start speaking out publicly• He set the trend for how the future of the abolition movement would look
1664:Maryland Passes Law• Maryland passed a law that stated that all black people were legally property• Any white woman who married a black man would also be a servant of his master until his death
1664:Maryland Passes Law• This institutionalized the practice of slavery and protected the rights of slave owners• It was the first legal action against marriages between white women and black men• It made black people a lower class legally
1712-New York Slave Rebellion• Conditions in New York made rebellion more likely• Slaves lived close together so communication was easy• Slaves worked side- by-side with free blacks
1712-New York Slave Rebellion• Slaves thought that revolting would incite other slaves to join them and massacre all the white people in town• 23 slaves revolted, but 70 were arrested and jailed. Many were executed.
• The british general told African Americans that he would give them their freedom if they went to war with him.• Many African Americans saw this as a fight for freedom.
• Freedom was the main motivation for the black slave whether joining either the Patriot or British army• About 20,000 fought in the British cause and 5,000 for the Confederates• Loyalty was to a principal (freedom), not a person or place
1831 – Nat Turner’s Slave Rebellion• He lived his whole life being hit and abused by his master.• He and other slaves finally rebelled and fought against the white men because he wanted a change• They fought for their rights
1831 – Nat Turner’s Slave Rebellion• They killed many white people – the highest number of any slave uprising in the South• As a result, white militias retaliated and accused and executed many slaves
1847: Frederick Douglass’sAbolitionist Papers • He was a slave that wanted to end slavery. • He escaped at the age of 20. • He then became a author. • He wanted rights for slaves and women too.
1847: Impact of FrederickDouglas • He wrote a newspaper called “The North Star". • He was a African American that show others that they can have rights too. • He helped stop slavery in America.
1849 - Harriet Tubman & theUnderground Railroad • She led many slaves through the Underground Railroad from slavery to their freedom. • She was a nurse during the civil war and a union spy.
1849 - The Underground Railroad• The Underground Railroad was an organized system to help slaves escape from slavery• It was a network of secret routes and safe houses• Abolitionists and allies helped slaves escape• Some estimate that 30,000 people escaped to freedom over 20 years
1852 – Uncle Tom’s Cabin• An anti-slavery novel written by Harriet Beecher Stowe• Said to have “helped lay the groundwork for the Civil War”
1852 – Harriet Beecher Stowe• Wrote the best selling novel of the 19th century• When Lincoln met her, he said, “So this is the lady who started this great war.”
1859 – John Brown’s Raid inHarper’s Ferry, VA• John Brown was a white abolitionist who wanted to start a slave army to revolt by seizing the US arsenal• He rallied 20 men• He had even asked Harriet Tubman and Federick Douglass if they wanted to join• The raid was unsuccessful and Brown was hung for treason
1865 - 13th Amendment &Reconstruction• Abraham Lincoln was president• The 13th amendment abolished slavery• It was part of the group of amendments passed during Reconstruction
1865 - Reconstruction• The 5 years after the Civil War in America• It was an attempt to rebuild the country and get things back to normal as soon as possible.• Had to find a way to get the Confederate states to be a part of the Union again
1878-Jim Crow Laws• Laws passed in the South after the Civil War• They mandated racial segregation of all public things in the south • Colored people had to use different things from what white people used.• This happened during 1878 till 1965
1878- Jim Crow LawsExamples included:• Segregation of public schools• Segregation of public transportation• Segregation of restrooms, restaurants and drinking fountains
1876-1965 Jim crow laws• The Jim Crow Laws were usually in the Southern States.• They usually used the laws for big places that were available to the public.
1876-1965 Jim crow laws Why?• Even though slavery ended the Jim Crow laws were made by the government (white people) to prevent white people and black people from being equal.• The Jim crow laws were made to give the black people less freedom than the white.
• 30-year-old Homer Plessy was classified "7/8 white" and resembled, in skin color and physical features, a white male.• John H. Ferguson was the judge Plessys case was heard by one month after his arrest
• Plessy was jailed after attempting to sit in an all-white railroad car.• The case said that it was ok to segregate people as long as they get the same quality treatment.
• Because of the case, segregation continued.• The idea was that if you really want to segregate blacks and whites, that was okay. However, the quality of what each race gets should be equal.• This proved to be more difficult in practice. (What was equal?
1909 - THE NAACP• Founded in 1909 by a diverse group of men and women• W.E. DuBois was a founding member
1909 - The NAACP• The NAACP was started to make sure that all people had equality of rights.• The NAACP is one of the oldest organization in the United States.
1954 - Brown v. Board ofEducation• A group of people went to court for their kids to be able to go to a different school.• Topeka,Kansas• The case was between Oliver Brown and the Board of Education of Topeka
1954 - Brown v. Board ofEducation• Court ruled that separate schools for blacks and whites was unconstitutional• It was a unanimous decision by The Supreme Court
1955 - Rosa Parks• Rosa Parks was the mother of the modern-day civil rights movement• Arrested and fined for refusing to give up her seat for a white man on a bus in Montgomery, Alabama• People in the community of Montgomery started a boycott
1955 - Rosa Parks• They didnt ride the bus until the rules were changed to allow anyone sit anywhere regardless of their because race.• Rosa was arrested December 1, 1955. The boycott Began on December 5, 1955-and ended on December 6, 1956.
1957- Little Rock Nine• After Brown v. Board of Education, many schools had• to be desegregated Little Rock High School had a plan to be gradually integrated and 9 African- American students were• enrolled The Governor of Arkansas and many protestors prevented the students from• entering the school President Eisenhower and the National Guard had to be called to protect them
March on Washington, 1963• The March on Washington was a march for freedom and jobs for African Americans.• It was led by Martin Luther King Jr. He gave his,"I have a Dream" speech
March on Washington, 1963• They did the March This is how many because they people came. wanted freedom• African Americans wanted equality and werent being treated fairly.• Over 300,00 people attended in front of the White House
1963: March on Washington• Martin Luther King Jr. took part in leading March on Washington• Many people were very exhausted on all the riots that were held because many people were getting payed a low amount of money that wasnt enough to feed or heat their families homes.• Martin Luther King Jr. and John Lewis spoke at the same day o Martin Luther King Jr. did his "I Have a Dream" at the same day
March on Washington 1963• March on Washington was lead to declare the fairness in equality,jobs, and freedom.• The students school they wanted to end segregated rules in schools.
1964-CIVIL RIGHT ACT• President John F. Kennedy said that the public money that the taxpayer pays should not be given to anything that supports racial discrimination.• Kennedy got assassinated before he was able to sign the law, so President Johnson had to sign it.
•1964-CIVIL RIGHT ACTThe civil rights actforbids thediscrimination basedon race and color.The civil right actwas expanded byCongress tostrengthenenforcement of thesefundamental rights.
1966 – Founding of the BlackPanther Party• The Black Panther • They founded it to protect themselves and Party was founded their neighborhoods. by 2 African They just wanted peace. Americans The policeman wouldnt do anything, so this was their plan. • Armed Panthers invaded California’s capital to protest legislation limiting their right to bear arms.
1966 – Founding of the BlackPanther Party• Examples of other places; Baltimore, Boston, Chicago, The Black Panthers Cleveland, Dallas, Denver, Detroit, Party was founded In Kansas City, Omaha, Philadelphia, Los Angeles, Oakland, California. Newark, New Orleans, New York Later on it then traveled City, Pittsburgh, San Diego, San to a lot of different Francisco, Seattle, and Washington D.C. places.
1968 – Martin Luther King’sAssassination, 6:05 PM• Martin Luther King Jr was assassinated at the Lorraine Motel in Memphis, TN• James Earl Ray confessed and was convicted of the crime• He was charged with 99 years in prison
1968 – King’s Assassination -Inferred events• Frank Liberto (a person affiliated with the mafia) had given Loyd Jowers $100,000 to hire a hitman to kill King.• Jowers hired Ray to kill King.• King was shot at 6:01 and was pronounced dead at 7:05
1968 – King’s Assassination – Why?• They believed if Martin Luther King was removed from the picture, there wouldnt be a figurehead to lead the party.• They believed with King gone, segregation would continue.
1992-Rodney King Riots• This happened in Los Angeles• Riots started because Rodney King was beaten• The riots happened for at least 6 days• They had shootings, lootings, and the people started vandalising property
1992-Rodney King Riots• Rodney King did not surrender to the Sacramento police• They started to beat him for not surrendering• The people around them thought beating him was wrong and not fair
2003 - Grutter vs. Bollinger• Was a Landmark case which the United States Supreme Court upheld affirmative action• Affirmative action allows businesses and schools to consider race, color, religion, sexual orientation and gender when considering admission
2003 - Grutter vs. Bollinger• Justice Sandra Day O’Connor wrote for the majority (5-4 decision)• Ruled that the University had a compelling interest in promoting class diversity
2008 – Barack Obama ElectedPresident• 93% of black people voted for Barack Obama• 39% of white people voted for Obama• 71 % of hispanics voted for him• 73% of asians voted for Obama
2009 - Barack Obama is President• He was born in 1961 in Honolulu Hawaii• The 44th President of the United States• The first African American president• Re-elected in 2012 to serve his second term