Building a Digital Citizenship Program Presented by Anna Baralt University of Florida Summer 2008
Scenario 1: A service club in the high school coordinated a lunch-time dodgeball tournament with student and faculty teams to raise money. A student filmed the contests, edited them, and posted them on his Facebook page. He did not have student nor faculty permission.
Scenario 2: A 6th grade girl is using iChat in the library after school. One student leaves her computer without logging off the chat system. Another student walking by sees the “open” account and sends vicious emails using the other girl’s identity.
Scenario 3: An elementary student stumbles upon a website at home with inappropriate pictures. The next day at school, he pulls up the site in the library after school and shares it with his friends.
Scenario 4: Two students are caught using cell phones during their final math exam. The phones were confiscated, but it was later discovered they were texting each other the answers to the test.
Rationale for Students Students today are growing up surrounded by digital technology. While they are comfortable using technology in their every day lives, they do not always use it appropriately. Students need to learn the tools to become responsible citizens in a digital society.
Rationale for Teachers More and more teachers are meeting students “in their world”, using technology in their teaching practice. Teachers can not assume students know how to use technology responsibly just because they know how to use it. Teaching students responsible use falls on the shoulders of the entire school community.
What Can Schools Do? Schools can start the conversation at their school. They can follow the lead of the International Society of Technology in Education to make digital citizenship an integral part of the school ’s curriculum.
What Can Schools Do? “ Students need to see that being a good citizen is just as important in the digital world as in their community” (Ribble & Bailey, 2006, p. 27 ). Image: National Educational Technology Standards for Students, 2007
What is Digital Citizenship? Digital Citizenship is defined by Ribble and Bailey (2007) in their book Digital Citizenship for Schools as: the norms of behavior for technology use There are nine general areas that make up digital citizenship. Image courtesy of Vicky Davis, Creative Commons Share Alike Non Commercial
Nine Themes of Digital Citizenship Etiquette (standards of conduct & procedures) Communication (electronic exchange of information) Education (teaching and learning appropriate use) Access (full electronic participation) Commerce (electronic buying and selling of goods) Responsibility (electronic responsibility of actions and deeds) Rights (those freedoms extended to those in a digital world) Safety (physical well-being) Security (self-protection)
Creating a Digital Citizenship Program Establish a technology leadership team of teachers, administrators, students, and parents. Conduct a digital citizenship audit to determine which elements are critical issues in your school or district. Identify the needs of your school from information gathered during the audit. Discuss what your schools ’ expected behavior for responsible technology use will be be. Design a program based on important issues and needs relevant to your school. Reevaluate your program each year.
Planning for Digital Citizenship 1 2 3 5 4 Conduct a digital citizenship audit Analyze the results Identify problems Provide resources to better understand technology use Create a program for appropriate technology use Source: Ribble, M. and Bailey, G. (2006). Digital Citizenship in Schools. p. 42.
Design Questions to Consider How do you currently view “rules and regulations” in your school community? Where in the curriculum should digital citizenship be taught? Who should teach digital citizenship? What professional development should be provided prior to program implementation?
Design Question 1: Rules and Regulations Common practice in schools and districts is to maintain an acceptable use policy, or AUP (Flowers & Rakes, 2000). An AUP defines what behaviors are appropriate or inappropriate in schools. An AUP explains the consequences for violations of the rules.
Design Question 1: Acceptable Use Policies AUP ’s typically include the following components: School ’s philosophy for educational technology List of responsibilities for all school members Description of acceptable and unacceptable uses Description of consequences Signature form Gosmire and Grady suggest that a sound AUP is only one part of the “safety net for technology in schools” (2007, p. 15)
Design Question 1: Sample Acceptable Use Policies Excerpt from an Elementary Policy Excerpt from a Middle/High School Policy Excerpts of AUP ’s from Shorecrest Preparatory School
Design Question 1: Other Considerations External security audits should be conducted annually to analyze risk potential. Security controls should be continuously evaluated. Review of the school ’s infrastructure should take place often and be part of the school’s overall technology plan.
Design Question 2: Fitting Digital Citizenship into the Curriculum Digital citizenship should be a continuous dialogue. Digital citizenship should be taught at all levels. Digital citizenship should be taught in all areas of the curriculum. Ribble & Bailey (2007) suggest schools work with students through the following stages: Stage 1: Awareness Stage 2: Guided Practice Stage 3: Modeling and Demonstration Stage 4: Feedback and Analysis
Design Question 2: Stage 1: Awareness Defines appropriate use of digital technologies (nine themes) Explains differences between acceptable use and misuse/abuse Discusses digital technologies and their impact on all members of the community Points out potential problems or issues Reviews legal and ethical rules that govern technology use
Design Question 2: Stage 2: Guided Practice Teachers should lead students in guided activities regarding each of the nine themes. Teachers should support students during use of technologies. Teachers need to provide a safe environment where students feel comfortable taking risks. Teachers should encourage students to question their actions and practices while using technology. (Is what I am doing appropriate? Why or why not?)
Design Question 2: Stage 3: Modeling and Demonstration Teachers should offer “explicit” models focusing on appropriate use. Teachers should “practice what they preach.” Parents should be encouraged to engage in dialogue at home with their child. Teachers should provide examples of appropriate and inappropriate uses. Students need to understand that there are consequences if technology is misused or abused.
Design Question 2: Stage 4: Feedback and Analysis Students should feel comfortable to discuss their use of technology, both inside and outside of school. Students need time to reflect on the decisions they make and whether or not their behavior had a positive or negative influence on others. Teachers should monitor student behaviors to see if additional guided practice and/or modeling is needed.
Design Question 2: Feedback and Analysis Image courtesy of Vicky Davis, Creative Commons Share Alike Non Commercial
Design Question 3: Who Should Teach Digital Citizenship Every member of the school community should be actively engaged in teaching digital citizenship. While each member may play a different role, all community members need to model appropriate practice. All members need to be familiar with the school ’s rules and regulations (AUP). Parents should also be involved in the process.
Design Question 4: Professional Development Faculty and staff need to be trained prior to starting a digital citizenship program. Professional development needs to be ongoing. Professional development should highlight all nine themes with greater focus on risk areas identified in the audit. Resources should be available to faculty and staff at all times. Schools can follow the activities outlined by Ribble and Bailey in Ch. 4 of their book Digital Citizenship in Schools (2007) .
Shorecrest Preparatory School Digital Citizenship Action Plan Form a Digital Citizenship Task Force (Completed March 2008) Evaluate and revise school ’s Acceptable Use Policy for Educational Technology (Completed June 2008) Introduce Digital Citizenship Program to faculty/staff (Planned Start of School - August 2008) Participate in professional development opportunities (Planned Start of School - August 2008 and on) Share online wiki created by task force for additional resources (Planned Start of School - August 2008) Implement Digital Citizenship Program school wide (2008-2009 School Year)
Shorecrest Preparatory School Beginning of Professional Development Assigned Summer Readings / Activities Ribble, M. and Bailey, G. (2004). Digital Citizenship: Addressing Appropriate Technology Behavior. Learning and Leading with Technology , 32 (1), 6-12. Revised Acceptable Use Policy Watch PBS Frontline Video: Growing Up Online http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/kidsonline/ First Days of School (Faculty In-service) School-wide presentation (PK3-12) Break out sessions: brainstorming, role playing, lesson planning (based on activities from Ribble & Bailey ’s book) School-wide presentation on copyright and fair use policies for educational technology Review of AUP ’s in individual divisional meetings Review of resource wiki
Shorecrest Preparatory School Plans for Educating the Parent Community Acceptable Use Policy for Educational Technology For the first time, parents will be asked to co-sign the school ’s AUP with their child. The AUP directly addresses parents with the following statement: “Families should set and convey similar standards for technology use in the home.” Weekly Communication Our online newsletter, E-bytes, will now feature a Digital Citizenship corner. Each of the nine themes will be highlighted throughout the school year. Links to articles, videos, podcasts, etc. will be shared.
Shorecrest Preparatory School Plans for Educating the Parent Community Evening Presentations Each month, guest speakers will be invited to discuss various aspects of digital citizenship with parents. Based on a parent survey conducted at the end of the 07-08 school year, parents want to know more about: cyberbullying, staying safe online, and technology integration/access, and digital law. Public Service Announcements (PSA ’s) Students in the high school will be creating public service announcements about digital citizenship to share with all members of the community. The PSA ’s will be featured in our weekly newsletter. Parent as Partners Parents from each division will be asked to work with the Digital Citizenship Task Force to plan future seminars, hands-on workshops, and other activities.
Summary Technological advances will continue to take place, whether schools want them to happen or not. We can no longer rely on Acceptable Use Policies to be the sole “police” of what students are doing with technology. Teaching students to be digital citizens, in and out of school, should be a top priority. Establishing a Digital Citizenship Program “will enhance the appropriate use of technology for learning, collaboration, and productivity at all levels” (Ribble & Bailey, 2007, p. 41).
References Berson, I., & Berson, M. (2003). Digital literacy for effective citizenship. Social Education , 164 ( 4 ), 67-70. Retrieved July 2, 2008. Brooks-Young, S., & Project, N. (2007). National Educational Technology Standards for Students . Eugene, OR: International Society for Technology in Education. Dyrli, O. (2000). Is Your Acceptable Use Policy Acceptable?. Curriculum Administrator , 36 ( 8 ), 29. Retrieved July 1, 2008. Flowers, B., & Rakes, G. (2000). Analyses of Acceptable Use Policies Regarding the Internet in Selected K-12 Schools. Journal on Research on Computing in Education , 32 ( 3 ), 351-365. Gosmire, D., & Grady, M. (2007). 10 Questions to Answer for Technology to Succeed in Your School. Principal Leadership , 72 ( 8 ), 12-18. Longford, G. (2005). Pedagogies of Digital Citizenship and the Politics of Code. Techn o : Research in Philosophy and Technology , 9 ( 1 ). Retrieved July 1, 2008, from http://scholar.lib.vt.edu.lp.hscl.ufl.edu/ejournals/SPT/v9n1/.
References Miller, J. (2004). Intellectual Freedom and the Internet: Developing Acceptable Use Policies. School Libraries in Canada , 23 ( 3 ), 24-33. Project, N. (2008). National Educational Technology Standards for Teachers: Second Edition . Eugene, OR: International Society for Technology in Education. Ribble, M., & Bailey, G. (2006). Digital Citizenship at All Grade Levels. Learning and leading with Technology , 6 , 26-33. Ribble, M., & Bailey, G. (2007). Digital Citizenship in Schools . Eugene, OR: International Society for Technology in Education. Thompson, K. (2005). Copyright 101. Learning and leading with Technology , 32 ( 7 ), 10-12. Villano, M. (2008). What Are We Protecting Them From. T.H.E Journal , 35 ( 5 ), 48-54.