Four stages Stage 1- Begins at about age 35 before it is detectable Stage 2- Occurs between ages 35 and 55 when osteoporosis becomes detectable with special tests Stage 3- Can begin as early as 45 and is characterized by bone fractures Stage 4- May begin as early as age 55 with fractures accompanied by chronic pain and deformity.
Risk factors Absence of menstrual periods Drinking large amounts of alcohol Family history History of hormone treatment for prostate or breast cancer Low body weight Smoking Too little calcium in diet
Causes Leading Cause- Lack of certain hormones Estrogen – Females Androgen - Males Being confined to a bed Chronic rheumatoid arthritis, chronic kidney disease, eating disorders Taking corticosteroid medications Hyperparathyroidism Inadequate intake of calcium and vitamin D Lack of muscle use Bone Cancer
Symptoms Bone pain or tenderness Fractures with little or no trauma Loss of height over time Low back pain due to fractures of the spinal bones Neck pain due to fractures of the spinal bones Stooped posture, “dowager’s hump”
Treatment options Stage 2 Remove risk factors Adequate amount of vitamin D and calcium Stage 3 Begin a regular exercise program Remove risk factors Adequate amount vitamin d and calcium Ask about prescriptions Stage 4 Follow step above Discuss pain management with physician