Westward movement 7

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Westward movement 7

  1. 1. Westward Expansion Go West Young Man!!
  2. 2. Oregon Country • LOCATION: Beyond Rocky Mountains – Willamette River Valley – Puget Sound lowlands • CLIMATE: – Fertile soil – Lots of rain – Mild temperatures
  3. 3. Oregon Country • LAND CLAIM: Many nations claimed control of this region – Native-Americans – USA – Spain – Russia – Great Britain
  4. 4. Oregon Country • PEOPLE: • Fur Traders & Trappers: Trapped otter & beaver pelts • Mountain Men: Rugged individualists. Lived off the land – Trapped & Traded furs – Connected with Native-American tribes – Married Native-Americans
  5. 5. Fur Traders • American Fur Company: Created by John Jacob Astor. – Became the richest man in the United States
  6. 6. Explorers • Jedediah Smith: Traveled the South Pass into Wyoming
  7. 7. Explorers • Manuel Lisa: Traveled up the Missouri River – Established Fort Manuel.
  8. 8. Explorers • Marie Dorion: An Indian woman and fur trader – Traveled around Oregon Country
  9. 9. Explorers • James Beckwourth: Ex-slave from Virginia – Became a guide through the Sierra Nevada Mountains
  10. 10. Missionairies • Missionaries: Wanted to convert Indians to Christianity
  11. 11. Missionaries • Marcus & Narcissa Whitman: 1st white settlers in Oregon to build permanent housing. • Accident: The Whitman’s give measles to the Cayuse Indian tribe. Many children die – The Indians brutally kill everyone in the mission
  12. 12. Utah • Mormons: Moved to Utah for religious reasons. – Joseph Smith: Founded in 1830 – Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints • Persecuted: The Mormon teachings were different – More than one wife allowed – Common owned property
  13. 13. Utah • Brigham Young: Mormon leader 1844 – Takes control after Joseph Smith is killed by angry mob in Illinois. • Great Salt Lake: Region in Utah – Mormons settle there
  14. 14. New Mexico Territory • Santé Fe Trail: Created by William Becknell • Used it to gain entrance to: – Arizona – New Mexico – Nevada – Utah – California – Colorado
  15. 15. California • GOLD RUSH: 1849 gold found in California – Many people “rush” out to find it [49ers] – Sutters Mill: 1848 John Sutter builds a sawmill in Sacramento, CA. – They discover gold while digging a ditch
  16. 16. Sutters Mill
  17. 17. California • 49ers: Settlers would find gold by – Digging it up – Panning for it – Very few miners ever struck it rich
  18. 18. California • BOOM TOWN: San Francisco becomes a huge city overnight – Overcrowded – Crime • Vigilantes: Self appointed law enforcement officials – Handed out “justice”
  19. 19. For Quiz • Joseph Smith Annex • James Beckwourth Lone Star Republic • Sam Houston Sutters Mill • James Polk Missionaries • William Becknell Gadsden Purchase • 49ers The Alamo • Vigilantes • Mormons-Utah • Mountain Men
  20. 20. END
  21. 21. TEXAS
  22. 22. Moses Austin • LAND GRANT: 1821 Spain gives Moses Austin a land grant in Texas • Stephen Austin: Takes over project – 20,000 Americans living in Texas by 1830 • Mexico: Wins independence from Spain – Takes control of Texas
  23. 23. Conflict in Texas • Mexican Government: Refused to allow any more Americans into Texas • New Laws: Used to discourage Americans from moving to Texas – NO more Slavery – Must worship Catholic religion
  24. 24. Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna • 1833 • Mexican General & Military Dictator – Wants to drive all Americans OUT of Texas • Tejanos: Mexicans living in Texas disliked him
  25. 25. Town of Gonzales v Mexican Army • 1835 • Texans push Mexican soldiers out of Gonzales – Win battle • Stephen Austin vows: – “To see Texas forever free from Mexican domination!”
  26. 26. Battle of San Antonio • Texans storm San Antonio – Win important battle
  27. 27. Republic of Texas • FREEDOM: Texas declares independence! • Sam Houston: Name 1st Commander of the Texas Army
  28. 28. The Alamo
  29. 29. The Alamo • Battle: Mexican siege • 6,000 Mexicans attack 200 Americans/Texans – Battle lasted 12 days – American Soldiers: William Travis, Davy Crockett & Jim Bowie – Mexico killed every soldier in the fort
  30. 30. Battle of Goliad • Execution: Hundreds more Texans were killed by Santa Anna in this battle – The soldiers were killed AFTER they surrendered
  31. 31. Battle of San Jacinto • Americans React: “Remember the Alamo” • American Volunteers and Texans defeat and capture Santa Anna – Santa Anna: Forced to sign peace treaty • Texas has independence
  32. 32. Lone Star Republic • Sam Houston: Elected 1st President of Texas • Problems: – Mexico refused to accept the peace treaty – Texas was bankrupt • Solution: Become a state in the Union!
  33. 33. President James Polk • James Polk [Democrat] defeats Henry Clay in 1844 • Expansion: Polk believed in Manifest Destiny and expanding the American borders • Slogan: 54 40 or Fight!
  34. 34. President James Polk • Texas: Sam Houston threatens to become an ally with Britain. – 1845: Polk annexes Texas • Oregon: Both U.S. and Britain want control of Oregon Territory. – 1846: A compromise is met. The border is made at 49 degrees North
  35. 35. Mexican War • Annex: The U.S. takes Texas, offers money to Mexico. – Mexico gets angry
  36. 36. Mexican War • Border Issues: – United States claims border is Rio Grande River – Mexico claims it is the Nueces River • U.S. Military goes to the border • Mexican soldiers move across Rio Grande River • U.S. declares war on Mexico
  37. 37. Mexican War • General Zachary Taylor: President Polk sends Taylor to border. • Leads troops into Northern Mexico • Wins many battles in this war
  38. 38. Mexican War • General Winfield Scott: Attacked the Port of Veracruz – Took control of Mexico City
  39. 39. Mexican War • General Stephen Kearney: Captured Santé Fe without firing a single shot! – Controlled Southern California
  40. 40. Mexican War • John Fremont: An American explorer – Led a group of rebels in Northern California – Defeated the Mexican Army • Declared their independence from Mexico – Bear Nation Republic
  41. 41. Mexican War • Battle of Chapultepec: 1847 Final battle of Mexican War • U.S. defeats the Mexicans and controls California, New Mexico & Mexico City
  42. 42. Mexican War • Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo [1848]: – Known as the Mexican Cession – Mexico ceded all of California & New Mexico Territory for 15 million dollars
  43. 43. Mexican War • Gadsden Purchase [1853]: The U.S. purchases a strip of land in Arizona from Mexico for 10 million dollars
  44. 44. END
  45. 45. Manifest Destiny
  46. 46. Manifest Destiny • It was our DESTINY to move West to the Pacific Ocean. • Bring our: – Way of Life – Religion – Government • They felt superior to the Native-Americans
  47. 47. Treaty of Paris • 1783 • Land ceded [given] by Britain after the American Revolution – Includes Ohio River Valley
  48. 48. Louisiana Purchase • 1803 • President Jefferson buys this land from France for 15 million dollars – Double the size of the U.S.
  49. 49. Northern Border Lands • 1818 • Land ceded by Britain – Included pieces of Minnesota and Wisconsin
  50. 50. Florida • 1819 • Adams-Onis Treaty: The U.S. buys Florida from Spain for 5 million dollars
  51. 51. Webster-Ashburn Treaty • 1842 • U.S. acquires Northern Border lands from Britain – A small piece of Maine
  52. 52. Texas • 1845 • The U.S. annexes Texas from Mexico – Texas and Southwest states
  53. 53. Oregon • 1846 • President Polk negotiates a treaty with Britain to draw the boundary at 49 degrees North latitude
  54. 54. Mexican Cession • Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo: After the end of the Mexican War, this treaty gave America parts of: – New Mexico – California – Arizona – Utah
  55. 55. Gadsden Purchase • The U.S. buys a strip of land in Arizona from Mexico for 10 million dollars
  56. 56. `
  57. 57. END

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