Civil War- Causes

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Civil War- Causes

  1. 1. CIVIL WAR The Nation Splits
  2. 2. Election of 1860 • Abraham Lincoln: Illinois. Republican • Stephen Douglas: Illinois. Northern Democrat • John Breckinridge: Kentucky. Southern Democrat • John Bell: Tennessee. Confederate Union. Was a former Whig/Moderate
  3. 3. Election of 1860 • Abraham Lincoln WINS!! • Gets almost all the NORTH votes. • Gets NONE of the Southern votes – Not even on the Southern ballots! • Southerners were very angry he won election – “Abolitionist in the White House” – “Lost their Voice in government”
  4. 4. Election of 1860 • Abraham Lincoln WINS!! • Gets almost all the NORTH votes. • Gets NONE of the Southern votes – Not even on the Southern ballots! • Southerners were very angry he won election – “Abolitionist in the White House” – “Lost their Voice in government”
  5. 5. Secession • John Crittenden: Kentucky Senator. Attempts to heal the nation with an “Unamendable” Amendment that would guarantee the right to own slaves in the South. • South Carolina is first to SECEDE [leave the Union]!
  6. 6. Secession • John Crittenden: Kentucky Senator. Attempts to heal the nation with an “Unamendable” Amendment that would guarantee the right to own slaves in the South. • South Carolina is first to SECEDE [leave the Union]!
  7. 7. Secession • “It is the right of the people to alter or to abolish a government that denies the rights of its citizens” Declaration of Independence
  8. 8. Secession • “It is the right of the people to alter or to abolish a government that denies the rights of its citizens” Declaration of Independence
  9. 9. Confederacy • Convention: Southern states meet in Montgomery, Alabama to create a nation • Confederate States of America: Southern nation • Jefferson Davis [Mississippi]: Elected President
  10. 10. Confederacy • Convention: Southern states meet in Montgomery, Alabama to create a nation • Confederate States of America: Southern nation • Jefferson Davis [Mississippi]: Elected President
  11. 11. Confederacy • Convention: Southern states meet in Montgomery, Alabama to create a nation • Confederate States of America: Southern nation • Jefferson Davis [Mississippi]: Elected President
  12. 12. Jefferson Davis
  13. 13. Lincoln • Abraham Lincoln speaks to the nation • Goals – Preserve the Union: Claimed secession was unconstitutional – Avoid War: Claimed he would NOT declare war on the South. War would only happen if the South started it
  14. 14. Fort Sumter • South SEIZES military forts located in their region • Confederate soldiers attacked and bombed Fort Sumter in South Carolina. • The war has begun!
  15. 15. Fort Sumter • South SEIZES military forts located in their region • Confederate soldiers attacked and bombed Fort Sumter in South Carolina. • The war has begun!
  16. 16. Civil War • Four years long – “Brother against Brother” • More Americans died in this conflict than any other American war • Martial Law: Lincoln declared the army was in control, not government. Did this to keep the peace and stop protests • “Rich Mans War…Poor Mans Fight!” – Only poor people were drafted into the fighting
  17. 17. Civil War • NORTH: • South were traitors • Many Northern volunteers showed up to fight – Wanted to preserve the Union • Copperheads: Northerner who SUPPORTED the South. They were NOT well-liked
  18. 18. Civil War • NORTH: • South were traitors • Many Northern volunteers showed up to fight – Wanted to preserve the Union • Copperheads: Northerner who SUPPORTED the South. They were NOT well-liked
  19. 19. Civil War • SOUTH • Believed they had the right to secede • Many willingly wanted to fight for their independence and way of life • Problems: The new Southern nation struggled to stay together – Did NOT want to pay taxes – Georgia threatened to secede from the South!
  20. 20. Civil War • BORDER STATES • 1861: 8 SLAVE states that were technically located in the NORTH! • Confederate States: Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee & Arkansas • Union: Maryland, Delaware, Kentucky & Missouri
  21. 21. Strategy • NORTH • Naval Blockade: Stop trade and cripple southern economy • Invade South: Attack and take Richmond [South Capital] • Invade West: Take control of Mississippi River
  22. 22. Strategy • SOUTH • Defensive War: Wait for North to attack then defend themselves • European Money: Borrow money from Europe nations that traded with them
  23. 23. Strategy • “Our men must prevail in combat…or they will lose their property, country, freedom…in short, they will lose everything” Jefferson Davis
  24. 24. BATTLES • AT SEA – Union/North: Blockaded southern ports – Confederacy/South: Used “Blockade Runners” to escape • Iron-clad Ships: – Merrimack: Southern Ship. Was an abandoned old northern ship – Monitor: Northern ship, was faster and stronger than the Merrimack
  25. 25. BATTLES • Battle of Bull Run: 1st Major battle of the war • South wins in an upset!! • “Stonewall” Jackson: Very tough Southern general leads them to victory. • George McClellan: Northern commander. Cautious, lazy and unorganized
  26. 26. Battles • Battle of Antietam: South ties in Maryland • General Robert E. Lee: Leads South • Gen. George McClellan: Fails to capture and win this battle in spite of having Lee’s battle plans. Lincoln FIRES HIM! • Ambrose Burnside: Replaces him as Commander of the Union Army
  27. 27. Ambrose Burnside
  28. 28. Battles • Battle of Fredricksburg: Northern Army attacks Robert E. Lee 6 times, and fails each time. • Battle out West: Northern general Ulysses S. Grant defeats the Southern leaders in Tennessee and takes control of the important Mississippi River
  29. 29. Battles • Battle of Shiloh: The bloodiest battle of the war • General Grant: Defeats the South with help from reinforcements – This win begins to break the Southern morale
  30. 30. Battles • Battle of Chancellorsville: South wins! • General Lee & Jackson: Outsmart the North again and again. • General Jackson: Accidentally shot and killed by his own troops who thought he was a Northern soldier
  31. 31. Battles • Battle of Vicksburg: Mississippi • General Grant: Now the Commander of the Union Army. • Uses Total War to take control of Mississippi River & Port Hudson
  32. 32. Battles • Battle of Gettysburg: Lee marched North to Pennsylvania. • Gen. George Meade [North]: Meets Lee head on in a huge open field. – 400,000 soldiers die in this battle, all of the dead are buried there.
  33. 33. War Ends • Gen. William Sherman: Burns Atlanta [Total War] • Richmond Falls • Robert E. Lee surrenders to Ulysses S. Grant at the Appomattox Courthouse [Virginia]. • The war is OVER!
  34. 34. Women in the War • Nurses: Dorothea Dix, Clara Barton & Sojourner Truth [North]. Sally Tompkins [South] • Loretta Janeta Velazquez: Fought as a soldier for the North • Rose Greenhow: Was a spy for the South
  35. 35. Abraham Lincoln • President • At 6’4, was the tallest President • From Illinois • Hated slavery, thought is was “moral wrong”
  36. 36. Abraham Lincoln • Civil War: 1st goal was to preserve the Union, no matter what.
  37. 37. Lincoln & Slavery • Wanted to keep slavery from spreading • 1862 – Freed the slaves with the Emancipation Proclamation
  38. 38. Emancipation Proclamation • “On the 1st day of January…all persons held as slaves within any state or…part of a state whose people are in rebellion against the United States, shall be then, thenceforward and forever free” Lincoln

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