Americans Move West

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Americans Move West

  1. 1. Americans Move West
  2. 2. Why Americans Move West
  3. 3. Why Americans Move West • Economic • Land • Railroads/Employment • Cattle
  4. 4. Economic
  5. 5. Economic • Gold Rush: Settlers find gold in California. – Prospectors • Comstock Lode: 1859. Nevada – Henry Comstock: Found largest silver mine in North America. • Locations: Montana, Idaho, Colorado, South Dakota [Black Hills Mountains]
  6. 6. Economic
  7. 7. Economic • Boom Towns: New towns created because of Gold & Silver mines – Miners + Merchants + Permanent Structures= Boom Town!
  8. 8. Boom Town • Settlers Find GOLD or SILVER • Miners move in and set up camps • Merchants move in and build buildings • BOOM TOWN • Gold & Silver runs out • Miners move to next spot • Merchants move with miners • GHOST TOWN
  9. 9. Economic
  10. 10. Economic • Problems with Boom Towns: – Pollution – Destruction of Forests & Land – Conflict with Native-Americans [land] – Discrimination [Immigrants] – Lawless Towns: NO real law enforcement • Vigilantes: Self-appointed law enforcement officials
  11. 11. Land
  12. 12. Land • Indian Land: Most of the land the new settlers were moving onto, was occupied by Native- Americans. • Oklahoma: “Sooners” won land races for pieces of Indian Territory in West. • Kansas: African-American farmers [Exodusters] moved to land in the West offered to them by the government.
  13. 13. Employment • Railroads: Used Immigrant labor to build railroads – Chinese – Irish – African-Americans – Mexican-Americans
  14. 14. Railroads • Transcontinental Railroad: 1863. Stretched across the United States – Union Pacific: Started in Omaha, Nebraska heading West – Central Pacific: Started in Sacramento, California heading East – Subsidy: Government money
  15. 15. Railroads • Transcontinental Railroad: 1863. Stretched across the United States – Union Pacific: Started in Omaha, Nebraska heading West – Central Pacific: Started in Sacramento, California heading East – Subsidy: Government money
  16. 16. Railroads
  17. 17. Railroads • Promontory Point: 1869. Utah where the two railroads meet. – Leland Stanford: President of Central Pacific hammered the “Golden Spike” to connect the two railroads.
  18. 18. Railroads • Boom Towns: Also appeared with Railroads. – Train Stations + Merchants + Settlers = Boom Towns [Rail Towns]
  19. 19. Cattle • Cattle Kingdom: Longhorn Cattle grazed across land in the South & Midwest • Cattle Drives: Cow Hands would “drive” the cattle North to Kansas/Missouri – Drives could be dangerous – Chisholm Trail: Jesse Chisholm [Cherokee Indian]
  20. 20. Cattle • Cattle Kingdom: Longhorn Cattle grazed across land in the South & Midwest • Cattle Drives: Cow Hands would “drive” the cattle North to Kansas/Missouri – Drives could be dangerous – Chisholm Trail: Jesse Chisholm [Cherokee Indian]
  21. 21. Cattle • Cow Towns: Towns created around cows, like Boom Towns. – Abilene, Kansas
  22. 22. Cattle • Cowboys: Paid a $1 a day – Vaqueros [Spanish cowboys] – Lariat [rope] – Sombrero [hat] – Chaparrerras [Chaps]
  23. 23. Farmers • Sodbusters: New farmers – Sod Houses: Homes built out of grass [sod] • Great Plains Climate: Very Dry. Little Rainfall. Would cause firestorms – Insects: Grasshoppers – Weather: Harsh winters, snow blizzards
  24. 24. Farmers • Sodbusters: New farmers – Sod Houses: Homes built out of grass [sod] • Great Plains Climate: Very Dry. Little Rainfall. Would cause firestorms – Insects: Grasshoppers – Weather: Harsh winters, snow blizzards
  25. 25. Farmers • Supply & Demand • Some farmers struggled to sell crops and make money. – Default on their loans – Foreclosure on farms
  26. 26. Farmers • Help for Farmers: • National Grange: 1867. Farmers created a Cooperative. Farmers “Pool” they money together to buy things wholesale. – Farmers Alliance: 1870s. Black and White Cooperatives
  27. 27. Farmers • Populist Party: 1891. Formed by farmers and labor unions. – Change: Income Tax Laws, 8-hr work day, limit immigration. Use silver to make coin money. – William Jennings Bryan: Populist Party candidate for President many times.
  28. 28. Farmers • New Technology: – Steel Plows – Windmills – Reapers – Threshers – Binders
  29. 29. • Comstock Lode Leland Stanford • Gold Rush Cattle Kingdom • Vigilantes Jesse Chisholm • Exodusters Vaqueros • Oklahoma Land Race Sodbusters • Railroad Labor National Grange
  30. 30. PLAINS INDIANS
  31. 31. Plains Indians • Location: Great Plains Region – Well-organized religion – Language – Arts & Crafts – Poetry • Farmers & Hunters – Tamed horses
  32. 32. Plains Indians
  33. 33. Plains Indians • Buffalo: Tribes migrated with Buffalo • “Galloping Department Store”: Buffalo gave tribes everything they needed – Food, Clothing & Shelter [Tepees] – Toys & Sleds [travois] – Tools, Thread & Bowstrings
  34. 34. Plains Indians • Tribal Responsibilities: • Women: – Build and care for Home – Cook meals – Teach Children – Small roles in government
  35. 35. Plains Indians • Men – Hunt & Trade – Teach hunting skills – Military leaders – Spiritual leaders – Medicine Men
  36. 36. Plains Indians • Traditions – Sun Dance – Great Spirit
  37. 37. Plains Indians • Traditions – Sun Dance – Great Spirit
  38. 38. Government Policy
  39. 39. Government Policy • Reservations: Small pieces of land given to Indians by the U.S. government • Indian Removal Act: “Trail of Tears,” forced Indians to move further West from Mississippi River • Homestead Act: U.S. government promised land to new settlers who would stay for 5 years
  40. 40. Government Policy • Dawes Act: Tried to Americanize the Indians. Force them to become farmers. – Threatened tribal ways – Land was infertile – Hunters, NOT farmers – Reservation Life was terrible
  41. 41. Reservations • Fort Laramie Treaty: 1851 – Wyoming – Receive: Land, money, domestic animals, tools, etc…
  42. 42. CONFLICT • Chivington Massacre: 1864 – Col. John Chivington attacked local Indian tribe. – After Indians surrendered, Chivington killed over 100 men, women and children.
  43. 43. CONFLICT • Chivington Massacre: 1864 – Col. John Chivington attacked local Indian tribe. – After Indians surrendered, Chivington killed over 100 men, women and children.
  44. 44. CONFLICT • Red Cloud’s War: 1865 – Federal government builds a road through the Sioux territory – Chief Red Cloud leads Indians to war
  45. 45. CONFLICT • Red Cloud’s War: 1865 – Federal government builds a road through the Sioux territory – Chief Red Cloud leads Indians to war
  46. 46. CONFLICT • Sioux War: 1876. Lakota Indians were led by Sitting Bull & Crazy Horse
  47. 47. CONFLICT • Sioux War: 1876. Lakota Indians were led by Sitting Bull & Crazy Horse
  48. 48. CONFLICT • Battle of Little Big Horn: 1876 – Col. George Custer and all of his soldiers are killed in an ambush. – Worst defeat for the Americans
  49. 49. CONFLICT • Battle of Little Big Horn: 1876 – Col. George Custer and all of his soldiers are killed in an ambush. – Worst defeat for the Americans
  50. 50. CONFLICT • Battle of Wounded Knee: 1890 – Chief Big Foot led Sioux in return of Ghost Dance/Great Spirit – American soldiers killed over 200 Sioux Indians
  51. 51. CONFLICT • Battle of Wounded Knee: 1890 – Chief Big Foot led Sioux in return of Ghost Dance/Great Spirit – American soldiers killed over 200 Sioux Indians
  52. 52. PEOPLE
  53. 53. PEOPLE • Geronimo: Famous Indian warrior • Chief Joseph: Leader of the Nez Perces • Wovoka: A prophet. Preached for the return of the Ghost Dance • Susette La Flesche: Indian reformer • Helen Hunt Jackson: Writer/reformer. Wrote Century of Dishonor
  54. 54. Manifest Destiny

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