A standard may be defined as a model or generalagreement established by authority (e.g. govt.),consensus (industrialist, bureaucrats, subject expert)or by custom, however standard when understoodas say, ISO 9000 or by other standard.For Example: For mineral water , implies the qualityspecification to be adhered to by the manufacturer.
Three Dimensions of standard Topics Z-axis Management Technical X-axis Level Engineering Individual Company Industry National International Textile Se Y-axis cto rs
Levels of Standards 1. Individual Standards 2. Industry Standards 3. National Standards 4. International Standards
1. Individual Standards The standards laid down by an individual user, department or a firm. An individual may be the starting point of using standard. The firm may prepare by agreement between its various department standards to guide purchasing, manufacturing & marketing operations.e.g.--An executive may have a preference for a certain stationary, filing system, office records, work procedure. These preference when extended to the department become individual departmental standards.
2. Industry Standards The standards prepared by a group of related interests in a given industry, trade or profession authorities established by the government. e.g.-- The society of automotive engineers. Directorate general of supplies and disposal (DGS & D). Directorate of standardization for defense production. Research design and standards organization of RLY (RDSO). Director general of mines safety. Director of marketing and inspection for--------- Textile commissioner. Export inspection council.
3. National Standards In India national standards are established by Indian Standards Institute (ISI), set up in 1947, now designated as Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS), a body jointly managed by the government and Industry.:- The BSI has laid down specifications for a wide range of materials and products. The National Physical Laboratory is entrusted with the responsibilities of the standardization of measurement of coordination with the International Org. for Legal Metrology and Physical Measurements. Dept. of Weights & Measures under the Union Ministry of Civil supplies is entrusted with the responsibilities of defining, enforcing & monitoring standardization in weight and measures.
4. International Standards ISO (International Organization for Standardization) is the world’s largest developer of voluntary International Standards. International Standards give state of the art specifications for products, services and good practice, helping to make industry more efficient and effective. Developed through global consensus, they help to break down barriers to international trade. It instituted in February 1947, comprises over 70 national organization like…BIS, JIS, ASA.:- Important bodies of ISO. International conference on weights and measures to define and standardization units of measures of physical quantities, weight and measures. Organization for legal metrology to evolve unified practices and procedures in standardization of measurements.
International Standards ---- contd…. Codex Alimenatarious Commission (CAC), an organization set up jointly by FOOD and Agri. Org. (FAO) and WHO to evolved food standards. World Gold Council to manage assaying centers (testing laboratories) to officially test and “hallmark” quality of gold. The ‘hallmark’ determines the purity of the gold, the office where it has been tested and the jewellers mark. Hallmarking of gold , as proposed by BIS, will be voluntary and BIS will not force jewellers to get gold hallmarked at the laboratories. However, ‘hallmark’ will give confidence to the buyer regarding the quality of gold.
Various foreign standards use in India The BIS is the recognized body in India entrusted with the responsibility of evolving national standards for the various products. Since its inspection, BIS has published more than 14,000 standards. In spite of such magnificent work done by BIS, many area still remain to be covered`. Hence, many a foreign standards is in use in Indian companies, both the private and public sectors.:- The following important foreign standards are use in India: API (American Petroleum Institute) ASA (American Standards Association) ASTM (American Society of Testing Materials) BSS (British Standards Specification) DIN (German Standards) GOST (USSR Standards) ISO (International Standards Organization) JIS (Japanese Standards) SAE (Society for Automotive Engineers) UNI (Italian Standards)
THE BENEFITS OF STANDARDIZATIONStandards support innovation by: Haring best practice, so designers can focus on developing better products. Results in variety reduction and enables standardizing to the most economical sizes, grapes, shapes, colours, types of parts and so on. Setting benchmarks for performance, quality and safety. Ensuring similar products work together (e.g. making sure all CDs are the same dimensions) . Making technical requirements. Reducing risks . Reducing costs.