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  1. 1. Ecosystem
  2. 2. What is an ecosystem? <ul><li>Organism </li></ul>Population Community Ecosystem Biosphere An ecosystem consists of communities, which are of different populations living together, and non-living surroundings too.
  3. 3. Types of ecosystems <ul><li>Forests </li></ul><ul><li>Marine/Island </li></ul><ul><li>Desert </li></ul><ul><li>Tundra </li></ul>
  4. 4. The desert ecosystem <ul><li>Deserts </li></ul><ul><li>- host flora and fauna in very oppressive environments. </li></ul><ul><li>- the plants and animals normally go into dormancy, due to the heat. For example, wildflowers. </li></ul><ul><li>- their life cycles are compressed. </li></ul><ul><li>- the animals there are adapted to the surroundings –behavioural and structural. </li></ul><ul><li>- the green plants use solar energy for food. </li></ul>
  5. 5. The desert ecosystem <ul><li>But how do the plants and animals adapt? </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptations for plants : </li></ul><ul><li>- Some plants survive the harsh weather by going into dormancy, escaping difficult times. And when the time is right, they awake and germinate/bloom. Ex. Ephemerals. </li></ul><ul><li>- Some plants have roots long enough to reach underground water sources. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. Phreatophytes. </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptation for animals: </li></ul><ul><li>Some animals stay in burrows away from the hot sun, where it is much cooler. Ex. Rodents </li></ul><ul><li>Some animals find what every shade they can find; under rocks, boulders. Ex. Desert Horned lizard. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Food chain in desert <ul><li>Here are simple food chains of the desert ecosystem! </li></ul><ul><li>Plant (Wildflower/seeds)  Insects  Lizards  Snakes </li></ul><ul><li>Plant ( Shrub seeds)  Quail  Coyote </li></ul>Producer Primary consumer Secondary consumer Tertiary Consumer
  7. 7. Here’s a video on the Sonoran Desert!  <ul><li> </li></ul>
  8. 8. The Forest Ecosystem <ul><li>Forests </li></ul><ul><li>- provide shelter for living organisms of all types, including the minute and the massive. </li></ul><ul><li>- from the smallest gnat to the largest predator, every single organism is essential in balancing the ecosystem </li></ul><ul><li>- sadly, it is prone to influences that can affect it forever. Ex. Climate conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>- t he forest ecosystem is reliant on the balance being maintained, between growth and decay. </li></ul><ul><li>- the proportion of flora will affect the way the fauna will exist. </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Forest Ecosystem <ul><li>But how do the plants and animals adapt? </li></ul><ul><li>How plants adapt to the forest </li></ul><ul><li>Climb high to reach the canopy  to obtain sunlight. Ex. Lianas . </li></ul><ul><li>Thick barks  limit moisture evaporation from tree trunk. ( low humidity) </li></ul><ul><li>Living on surface of other plants (trunks and branches)  take advantage of sunlight. Ex. Epiphytes. </li></ul><ul><li>How animals adapt to the forest </li></ul><ul><li>Moving extremely slowly  to avoid alert predators ( jaguars). Ex. Sloth. </li></ul><ul><li>Large strong beaks  to crack extremely hard nuts from the forest, and serves a tasty meal! Ex. Toucans </li></ul><ul><li>Spots on the animal  to camouflage, to either feed on the prey it’s aiming for our hide from the predator. Ex. Jaguar. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Food Chain in Forest ecosystem <ul><li>Here are some food chains from the forest! </li></ul><ul><li>Seeds  Birds  Snakes  Jaguars </li></ul><ul><li>Grass  Grasshopper  Toad  Snake </li></ul>Primary consumers Producers Secondary consumers Tertiary consumers
  11. 11. A cool video on the forest ecosystem  <ul><li> </li></ul>
  12. 12. The Marine Ecosystem <ul><li>Marines </li></ul><ul><li>- are one of the largest underwater ecosystems </li></ul><ul><li>- complete contrast from freshwater ecosystems  ( Marine ecosystems have more salt content.) </li></ul><ul><li>- ocean environment , in some places, its deeper than Mount Everest is high. </li></ul><ul><li>- very productive, and inhabitants adapt to survive wave action and exposure to air. </li></ul><ul><li>- nertic zone, oceanic zone, abyssal zone.  shallow to medium to deep. </li></ul>
  13. 13. How the inhabitants adapt? The Plants <ul><li>The plants all eat the same food. </li></ul><ul><li>Live near the surface, to capture sunlight to photosynthesise. </li></ul><ul><li>Have accustomed to the tides and waves. </li></ul><ul><li>Acts to camouflage prey from predators or predators from prey. </li></ul>The Animals <ul><li>-Dolphins appear on the surface to get oxygen. </li></ul><ul><li>-Whales have thick blubber to protect them from the cold. </li></ul><ul><li>Have eyes on either side to see predators. </li></ul><ul><li>Gills, which control amount of salt entering body. </li></ul><ul><li>Camouflage to the surroundings. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Marine food chains! Phytoplankton  Zooplankton  Barnacles  Hawk fish Food producers! Diatom  Squid  Tern Primary consumers! Secondary consumers Tertiary consumers!
  15. 15. Video on the Marine Ecosystem (Pretty marine life!)  <ul><li> </li></ul>
  16. 16. The Tundra Ecosystem <ul><li>Tundra </li></ul><ul><li>- low temperatures  tree growth is hindered </li></ul><ul><li>- during summers, the present layer of tundra soil thaws, allowing plants and organisms to survive. </li></ul><ul><li>- short seasons of growth and reproduction </li></ul><ul><li>- large population oscillations </li></ul><ul><li>- located in the northern hemisphere and is super cold!! </li></ul>
  17. 17. How the inhabitants adapt? <ul><li>Plants </li></ul><ul><li>- short and grouped together to resist the cold temperatures  protected by snow too. </li></ul><ul><li>- able to photosynthesis at low light intensity and low temperatures to make food. </li></ul><ul><li>- adapted to the sweeping winds and disturbing soils. </li></ul><ul><li>- no deep root systems </li></ul><ul><li>- reproduce by budding and division instead of flowering. </li></ul>
  18. 18. How the inhabitants adapt? <ul><li>Animals </li></ul><ul><li>- handle long, cold winter temperatures </li></ul><ul><li>- breed and raise their young very very quickly  in case of the cold. </li></ul><ul><li>- hibernate  food is insufficient </li></ul><ul><li>- migrate south in winter </li></ul><ul><li>- thick insulation of fat  protect them from the cold. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Tundra food chains! <ul><li>Grass  Lemmings  Arctic Fox </li></ul><ul><li>Tiny plants  Lemmings  Snowy Owl </li></ul>Producers  Primary consumers  Secondary consumers
  20. 20. A cool video on tundra!  <ul><li> </li></ul>
  22. 22. bibliography <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>