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World War I ( pts. 2 & 3)
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  • 1. Bell ringer!!!!In the United States, the main purpose ofantitrust legislation is toA. protect the environment.B. increase competition in business.C. encourage the growth of monopolies.D. strengthen the rights of workers.5/16/2013 1
  • 2. World WarI5/16/2013 2
  • 3. TN Curriculum Standards:• 4.0- Understand the reforms and changes inAmerican politics that affected America and theworld during 1890s and 1930s.• 5.0- Understand the role of the U.S. in worldaffairs.• 6.0- Understand the moral, social, and culturalchanges that occurred in the 1920s.SPI:7.4- Identify the causes of American involvement inWorld War I.5/16/2013 3
  • 4. WORLD WAR I5/16/2013 4
  • 5. Naval Blockade• In an attempt to starve out the Germans, the British setup blockades. They stopped and intercepted allmerchant ships that were headed to Europe.• They were trying to make sure that the ships weren’tcarrying contraband (goods that were prohibited frombeing shipped to Germany).• The U. S. was upset about the blockade, but Germanywas furious.• In retaliation, Germany sent out u-boats to stop shipsfrom the U. S. headed to Britain and France.• Both countries depended on the U. S. for food andequipment, and other supplies.5/16/2013 5
  • 6. NAVAL BLOCKADE5/16/2013 6
  • 7. STARVING GERMANY5/16/2013 7
  • 8. WARNING!!!!!• To their credit, Germany did announce thatthey would sink without warning any ship thatwas in the waters near Britain.• The U. S. was furious about this becauseGermany had signed an internationalagreement that said that they would not sinkcivilian ships without warning5/16/2013 8
  • 9. LUSITANIA5/16/2013 9
  • 10. THE LUSITANIA• The British passenger ship the Lusitania enteredthe war zone on May 7, 1915.• A German submarine sunk it killing nearly 1200passengers (128 Americans).• -Although, Germany had issued a warning in thenewspaper about sending passenger liners intothose waters, Americans still saw it as a terroristattack.• -Wilson still refused to fight. He merely issueddemands to Germany.5/16/2013 10
  • 11. 5/16/2013 11
  • 12. SUSSEX PLEDGE• Germany responded by sinking a Frenchpassenger ship named the Sussex.• To this, Wilson issued another warning. Tokeep the U. S. from entering the war, Germanysigned the Sussex Pledge.• It was a promise not to sink anymoremerchant ships without warning.5/16/2013 12
  • 13. SUSSEX5/16/2013 13
  • 14. ZIMMERMAN TELEGRAM• Wilson ran for reelection and won with theslogan “He kept us out of the war”.• Shortly after the election, British intelligenceintercepted a telegram from Arthur Zimmermann(German official) to a German ambassador inMexico.• The telegram promised to help Mexico recover“lost territories in Texas, New Mexico, andArizona in exchange for helping Germany fightagainst the U. S.5/16/2013 14
  • 15. ZIMMERMAN TELEGRAM5/16/2013 15
  • 16. ZIMMERMAN TELEGRAM• -The message wasleaked to the Americannewspapers- Americanswere furious.• -In addition tothis, German u-boatsbegan sinking all shipson sight. U. S. declaredwar in April of 1917.5/16/2013 16
  • 17. THE HOMEFRONT• After America decidedto enter thewar, Congressimmediately beganworking on ways tomobilize the nationsand ensure the efficientuse of naturalresources.5/16/2013 17
  • 18. WAR AGENCIES• The most important agency was the War IndustriesBoard. They were responsible with coordinating theproduction of war materials.• They told manufacturers what they couldproduce, allocated raw materials, ordered the newconstruction of factories, and even occasionally setprices.• The most successful agency was the FoodAdministration, run by Herbert Hoover. They wereresponsible for increasing food production for troopsand limiting food consumption for civilians.5/16/2013 18
  • 19. FOOD CONSERVATION• They encouraged families to conserve foodand grow their own gardens. These gardenswere called “victory gardens”. They institutedother measures to save food for the troopslike Wheatless Mondays, MeatlessTuesdays, and Porkless Thursdays.• Another agency was the Fuel Administration.They were responsible for managing theamount of coal and oil that troops used.5/16/2013 19
  • 20. FOOD RATIONING5/16/2013 20
  • 21. DAYLIGHT SAVINGS TIME• Garfield, the head ofthe agency, begandaylight savings time inorder to shorten worktimes for factories thatdid not make warmaterials.• He pushed for HeatlessMondays.5/16/2013 21
  • 22. PAYING FOR THE WAR• To fund the war, Congress raised income taxesand placed higher taxes on corporations.• The government also borrowed money from thepeople to pay for the war.• Americans were encouraged to buy LibertyBonds and Victory Bonds. The money earned offthe bonds would go directly to the government.• The government was supposed to repay the bondwith interest in a specified number of years.5/16/2013 22
  • 23. LIBERTY BONDS & VICTORY BONDS5/16/2013 23
  • 24. MOBILIZING THE WORKFORCE• The government could not afford for workers togo on strike during the war so they created theNational War Labor Board.• They served as mediators in labor disputes toprevent workers from striking.• The National War Labor Board encouragedcorporations to increase worker wages, establishan 8 hour work day, and allow workers to be apart of unions all in order to prevent strikes.5/16/2013 24
  • 25. NATIONAL WAR LABOR BOARD5/16/2013 25
  • 26. WOMEN IN THE WORKFORCE• With so many men needed to fight in thewar, employers began to allow women to fill thejobs that were traditionally thought to be men’sjobs.• Women worked in factories, shipyards, railroadyards, served as police officers, mail carriers, andtrain engineers.• After the war ended, women were expected toreturn to their previous jobs and roles.5/16/2013 26
  • 27. WORKING WOMEN WWI5/16/2013 27
  • 28. MINORITIES IN THE WORKFORCE• Henry Ford, creator of the T-Model car, was sodesperate for workers that he sent agents tothe south to recruit African Americans.• Other companies quickly followed suit. As aresult of this 300,000- 500,000 AfricanAmericans left the south and moved North.• This movement is known as The GreatMigration.5/16/2013 28
  • 29. GREAT MIGRATION• In the South, African Americans had beendenied the right to vote. In the Northerncities, they were extended this right.• At this same time, Mexicans fleeing politicalturmoil in their own country, also began tomigrate.• Approximately 100,000 Mexicans moved intothe southwest between 1917-1920.5/16/2013 29
  • 30. THE GREAT MIGRATION5/16/2013 30
  • 31. MOVING NORTH• They were able to find factory jobs in citieslike Chicago, St. Louis, and Omaha.• Even though they were allowed to work, theystill faced a great amount of hostility anddiscrimination.• As a result of this, they tended to settlewithin their own communities.5/16/2013 31
  • 32. THE GREAT MIGRATION5/16/2013 32
  • 33. COMMITTEE ON PUBLICINFORMATION• This agency hiredadvertisers, actors, authors, artists, songwriters, entertainers, public speakers, and motionpicture companies to help want to support thewar(basically, they used propaganda).• The govt. also passed legislation to limitspeaking against the war and to preventespionage (spying).5/16/2013 33
  • 34. FIRST AMENDMENT VIOLATIONS• The Espionage Act of 1917 made it illegal to assist theenemy, give false reports, or interfere with the war effort.• The Sedition Act made it illegal to speak against the warpublicly.• These two acts made it legal for the government toprosecute violators. More than 1000 people wereprosecuted because of this. War time fears also lead toattacks on German Americans, labor organizers, andsocialists.• Americans began spying on and reporting on the activitiesof their neighbors and coworkers.• Even though this contradicted with First Amendmentrights, the government permitted this behavior.5/16/2013 34
  • 35. Let’s Check for Understanding• After World War I, which factor was the majorcause of the migration of many AfricanAmericans to the North?A. the start of the Harlem RenaissanceB. increased job opportunities in Northern citiesC. laws passed in Northern States to end racialdiscriminationD. federal government job-training programs5/16/2013 35
  • 36. BUILDING THE MILITARY• A draft had to beestablished to enlarge themilitary. The selectiveservice system wasinstalled.• Selective service requiresall men between 21 and30 to register for thedraft. A lottery was heldto determine which menwould be called.• Approximately 2.8 millionmen were drafted.5/16/2013 36
  • 37. SEGREGATION IN THE MILITARY• African-Americans weredrafted, but were rarelyallowed to serve in combatpositions (42,000 out of the400,000 that were drafted).• The ones that were allowedto fight were praised by theFrench commander and alsoGeneral Pershing.• They also served in raciallysegregated units.5/16/2013 37