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  1. 1. Ronald ReaganAmerica Moves to the Right5/15/2013 1
  2. 2. Election of 19805/15/2013 2
  3. 3. TN Curriculum Standards:• TN Curriculum Standards:• 4.0- Investigate the impact of political turmoilon American attitudes toward governancesince 1968.• -Identify the impact of constitutional change,various civil rights movements, feminism, andthe Reagan Revolution.5/15/2013 3
  4. 4. Humble Upbringings• -Ronald Reagan was the son of an Irish Americanshoe salesmen. He grew up in Dixon, Illinois.• After he finished college he became a sportsbroadcaster. 5 years later he won his firstcontract for a Hollywood movie. For the next 25years, he continued to star in more than 50movies.• *His acting career allowed him to perfect hisspeaking skills.5/15/2013 4
  5. 5. Ronald Reagan (the actor)5/15/2013 5
  6. 6. Reagan Enters Politics• Reagan was extremelyconservative. He was anexcellent speaker andwent all around thecountry givingmotivational speeches.While on these speeches,he listened to Americanscomplain about howtaxes were making theirlives difficult.• *Wealthy businessmenbegan to take interest inReagan. They eventuallyconvinced him to run forgovernor of CA. Thebusinessmen backed hiscampaign and he won. 10years later, he won theRepublican presidentialnomination.5/15/2013 6
  7. 7. Reagan, the candidate• Reagan was the oldest candidate to ever benominated for president.• He was a Democrat like his father until heworked for the campaign to elect BarryGoldwater.• Reagan used the recession and the hostagesituation in Iran to his advantage to defeatJimmy Carter.5/15/2013 7
  8. 8. Reagan, the candidate• He repeatedly used the line “Are you better offnow than you were 4 years ago?”• Reagan appealed to Conservatives, anti-Communists, anti-feminists, fundamentalistChristians, southerners, and white working-class Democrats.• The Religious Right was extremely supportiveof Reagan’s candidacy.5/15/2013 8
  9. 9. The Rise of Conservatism• The Reagan administration embraced theConservative Christian values of the NewRight.• The New Right didn’t want to simply containCommunism, they wanted to eliminate itentirely.• They also wanted to limit the powers of thefederal government.5/15/2013 9
  10. 10. The New Right• They wanted thegovernment to scaleback on providing socialwelfare.• They opposed abortionand sexual promiscuity.• They also supportedincreasing the role ofreligion in politics.5/15/2013 10
  11. 11. Reagan quotes5/15/2013 11
  12. 12. The 1980 Election• Ronald Reagan promised to cut taxes andincrease defense spending (military). Reagan wasalso anti-abortion. This position helped him winthe votes of social conservatives. He won thepresidency by a landslide.• When Reagan entered the presidency,unemployment was high and so was inflation. Toboost the economy, Reagan cut taxes. His theorywas that if the business owners had to pay fewertaxes, they would be able to hire more workersand get the economy going again.5/15/2013 12
  13. 13. Reaganomics or “trickle down theory”5/15/2013 13
  14. 14. Effects of Trickle-Down• Liberals were concerned because they believedthat cutting taxes for the business owners wouldonly benefit the wealthy, not the rest of theworkers.• Cutting taxes increased the budget deficit (meanswe spent more $ than we actually had).• The national debt was seriously increased underReagan. Even so, his popularity helped his vicepresident (George H. W. Bush) win hispresidential election.5/15/2013 14
  15. 15. Cuts have to come from somewhereReagan was successful inhelping Americans overcomeinflation, but the percentageof poor Americans increasedunder Reagan.To try to pay for some of thesecuts, Reagan cut funding forsocial programs like welfare,food-stamps, the school lunchprogram, Medicare payments,unemployment, student loans,and housing assistance.• The distribution ofwealth became moreunequal underReagan.5/15/2013 15
  16. 16. Reagan, the ManReagan was extremely popular even by thosewho disagreed with him.He had a sense of humor that helped drawpeople to him.He also gained public sympathy when he wasshot by a would-be assassin in March of 1981.5/15/2013 16
  17. 17. Deregulation of Govt.• -Reagan believed thatexcessive government controlwas also to blame for theproblems in the economy. Hesigned an executive order thatended price controls on oil andgasoline. Gas prices actuallyfell after this.• *The FCC (FederalCommunications Commission)stopped trying to regulate thecable industry.• *The National Highway Trafficand Safety Administrationreduced requirements for airbags and higher fuel efficiencycars.• He deregulated the airlinescausing ticket prices to fall totheir cheapest rates.• *He deregulated efforts tomake corporations reducepollution and reduced therequirements for safety checkson chemicals and pesticides.• -Unemployment was reducedunder Reagan.5/15/2013 17
  18. 18. Let’s Check for Understanding!• One main difference betweenliberals and conservatives is that,generally,A. Conservatives believe ingovernment regulation of theeconomy while liberals do not.B. Liberals believe in governmentregulation of the economywhile conservatives do not.C. Conservatives believe that allpower should be held by thenational government, whileliberals do not.D. Liberals believe that all powershould be held by the states,while conservatives do not.5/15/2013 18
  19. 19. Reagan Oversees a Military Buildup• In addition to makingserious reforms in theUnited States regardingdomestic policies, Reaganalso set his sights abroad.• He took more activestance againstcontainment. Heconsidered the SovietUnion to be an “evilempire” and he dideverything in his power todefeat them.5/15/2013 19
  20. 20. Peace through StrengthReagan named hiscampaign “Peace throughStrength”. He ordered thelargest military buildup inAmerican history (duringpeacetimes).The cost for this buildupwas $1.5 trillion (to spreadover 5 years).Reagan was secretlyhoping that CommunistRussia would spend somuch money trying tokeep up with the UnitedStates that they wouldbankrupt their countryand cause their system tofall apart….essentiallyending Communism there5/15/2013 20
  21. 21. Peace through Strength5/15/2013 21
  22. 22. Fighting Terrorism• Reagan also tried to stopother nations fromsupporting terrorism.When the African nationLibya supported a terroristbombing in Berlin(Germany), the U. S.launched an air attack onLibya (Gaddhafi- the leaderthat we recently killed wasin power). The raid killedabout 37 people and injuredaround 200.• Increasing the militarycreated new jobs inindustries that supportedthe nation’s defense.• Although Reagan ran on taxcuts and balancing thebudget, the budget deficit(the amount we owe othercountries) went from $80billion to over $200 billion.5/15/2013 22
  23. 23. The Reagan Doctrine• Reagan’s plan tosupport other guerillagroups who werefighting to overthrowCommunistgovernments.5/15/2013 23
  24. 24. Aid to Afghan-In 1979, the SovietUnion invadedAfghanistan.A group of Afghan guerillasknown as the Mujahadeenlaunched an attack againstthe Soviets.-Reagan sent $570million to aid theAfghan guerillas.The Soviets foundthemselves in a lose-losesituation (it was similar tothe U. S.’s position inVietnam).The Sovietsfound that theycould not defeatthe Afghanguerillas.The war causedtheir economyto be financiallystrained.Nine years later,they withdrewtheir troops.5/15/2013 24
  25. 25. Osama Bin Laden with theMujahaideen5/15/2013 25
  26. 26. Strange Bedfellows5/15/2013 26
  27. 27. Nicaragua and GrenadaAfter Afghanistan, Reagan became concerned about the Soviet’s control inNicaragua.At one time, Nicaragua had been ruled by a pro-American dictator.He had been overthrown by a rebel group known as the Sandinistas.The Sandinistas set up a Socialist government and started accepting aid(money) from Cuba and the Soviets (our enemies).5/15/2013 27
  28. 28. Reagan vs. Democratic CongressAlthough Reagan waspassionate about fightingCommunism in Nicaragua,Congress was not.They passed the BolandAmendment to specificallyrestrict the CIA and theDepartment of Defense’sinvolvement in Nicaragua.Two years later, they voted tostrengthen the amendmentand make it nearly impossibleto assist the Contras inNicaragua.5/15/2013 28
  29. 29. Going Against the Grain• Reagan went against Congress and authorizedthe National Security Adviser to do whateverhe had to do “to help these people keep bodyand soul together”.5/15/2013 29
  30. 30. Iran & Iraq go to War• In 1985, Iran and Iraq went to war.• Iran secretly asked if the U.S. to sell themweapons.• At the time, a group of Iranian terrorists wereholding Americans hostage in Lebanon.• Reagan said that he felt like “he had a duty tobring those Americans home”. Negotiationswere made with the Iranians.5/15/2013 30
  31. 31. Origins of the Iran-Contra scandal• By sending weapons toIran, the ReaganAdministration violatedtwo of its promises tothe American people.• The first one being tonever negotiate withterrorists and thesecond one beingviolating our embargoto Iran.5/15/2013 31
  32. 32. Fog of WarReagan had always been admired by his staff for hishonesty.This decision to sell weapons to Iran in exchange forhostages divided his administration.The U.S. shipped more than 1500 missiles to Iran.The Iranians did release 3 of the American hostages,but they quickly replaced them with 3 more.5/15/2013 32
  33. 33. The heat is on!!• When a Lebanon newspaper got word of thenews and printed it, Reagan went on t.v. anddenied that any such operation had takenplace.• 1 week later, he had to go back and admit tothe American people that we had soldweapons to Iran, but it wasn’t in exchange forhostages.5/15/2013 33
  34. 34. Iran-Contra• By this time, Americans began to distrust whatReagan was telling them.• Another scandal erupted immediatelyfollowing this.• It was discovered that the Iranians had paidthe U.S. $30 million for the weapons, but only$12 million had actually made it to the U.S.• The rest had been sent to Nicaragua to helpthe Contras fight Communism there.5/15/2013 34
  35. 35. The Cover-Up• When this was releasedto the press, OliverNorth of the NationalSecurity Council,explained that he hadbeen under theimpression that thisdeal had beenauthorized by thepresident.5/15/2013 35
  36. 36. Oliver North testifies about Iran-Contra5/15/2013 36
  37. 37. Facing the MusicIn the aftermath, 14 people werecharged with cover-up crimes.Although most were sure that theorders had to have come fromReagan, there was no directevidence linking Reagan to thecontroversy.• The Iran-Contra scandalwould be investigatedfor 8 years.• When Reagan’s vice-president George H. W.Bush won thepresidency, hepardoned most of thosethat were convicted.5/15/2013 37
  38. 38. Still a Legacy• The Iran-Contra scandalseriously damagedReagan’s image, but hestill left office as one ofthe most popularpresidents the U.S. hadever had.5/15/2013 38
  39. 39. Arms Race5/15/2013 39
  40. 40. ArmsControlSince the Soviets hadnuclear weapons inEastern Europe,Reagan decided to putweapons in WesternEurope.-This paved the wayfor a “nuclear freeze”-peace movement-they wanted a halt tothe deployment of anynuclear missiles.Reagan offered toremove his missiles ifthe Soviets removedtheirs. The Sovietsrefused5/15/2013 40
  41. 41. A Push for Diplomacy5/15/2013 41
  42. 42. Star Wars• Reagan pushed for thedevelopment ofweapons that couldintercept and destroyincoming missiles.• This new programwould come to becalled STAR WARS.5/15/2013 42
  43. 43. Mikhail GorbachevMikhail Gorbachev became the new leader of the Soviet Union.He did not wish to engage in an arms race with the United States.Gorbachev and Reagan had a series of meetings designed toreduce their nuclear weapons.Reagan challenged Gorbachev to prove that he really meantbusiness about seeking peace by tearing down the Berlin Wall. Hedid.Reagan and Gorbachev signed the Intermediate Range NuclearForces Treaty in 1987…essentially ending the Cold War.5/15/2013 43
  44. 44. 5/15/2013 44
  45. 45. Justice for All5/15/2013 45
  46. 46. Check for UnderstandingCritics of Reagan’s economic policyreferred to it as “trickle downeconomics” because they• Believed that the plan wouldwork, allowing wealth to “trickledown” to the middle and lowerclasses.• Ridiculed the idea that muchwealth would “trickle down” tothe middle and lower classes.• Believed that the plan was messyand would cause a great deal ofwasteful government spending.• Agreed that the richest peoplewould share their wealth withthe neediest in society.5/15/2013 46