Genocide in Rwanda
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Genocide in Rwanda

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A powerpoint for 11th grade U. S. History about the U.S.'s intervention in Rwanda

A powerpoint for 11th grade U. S. History about the U.S.'s intervention in Rwanda

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    Genocide in Rwanda Genocide in Rwanda Presentation Transcript

    •  Genocide is defined as the systematickilling of all of the people from anational, ethnic, or religious group, or anattempt to do this. It is also called ethnic-cleaning.
    •  Can you think of any other times inhistory where genocide has takenplace?
    •  The extermination of more than 10 millionNative Americans in North America The Holocaust Darfur and the Sudan
    •  Rwanda is a country in Africa that had apopulation of around 7 million people in1994 (currently 309 million people in theU. S.). The people were comprised of 3 maingroups: the Hutu (85%), the Tutsis(14%),and the Twa (1%).
    •  It had been previously colonized byGermany. Once Germany signed the Treaty ofVersailles, control of Belgium went toBelgium. FACT CHECK: Which war did the Treatyof Versailles end?
    •  The Hutus and the Tutsis speak the samelanguage. They embrace the same culturalpractices. The ethnic groups were turned into aclass system under the Belgians in 1918.
    •  Both the Germans and the Belgiansdeveloped a class system in Rwanda(one group received better treatmentthan another). Both countries favored the Tutsis over theHutu. Belgium took things a step further bycreating ethnic identity cards for them tocarry so people would know if they wereHutu or Tutsi.
    •  The Tutsis were treated as if they were farmore superior than the Hutus. They were given better jobs, placed inofficial positions, and offered Western-styled education. The Tutsis eventually began to seethemselves as “better” than the Hutus.
    •  Hutu groups began to rebel against boththe Belgians and the Tutsis. Belgian troops were forced to withdrawfrom Rwanda in 1962. Tutsis, knowing that their protectionwould be gone with the Belgians, Tutsicitizens fled Rwanda by the thousands.
    •  By 1960, more than half of the Tutsipopulation had been forced to flee. By 1973, the Hutu began purging theTutsis from local universities. There wasan ethnic quota put on hiring. Tutsisweren’t allowed to have more than 9%of the available jobs.
    •  Widespread killings of Tutsi citizens beganagain. Politicians and journalists who wereopposed to the killings were also singledout. The fighting between the two groupscontinued throughout the 70s and the 80s. In 1993, the current Hutu president decidedto sign a peace agreement between thetwo groups.
    •  The United Nations sent in troops to helpthe Hutu president coordinate thepeace agreement between the Hutusand the Tutsi rebels. Instead of the Hutu presidentimmediately signing the resolution, hestalled on it. This heightened tensions between thetwo groups and the massacres beganagain.
    •  Hutu extremist groups began to use theradio to call for the annihilation of all of theTutsis in Rwanda. The extremists informedthe people that they would use a codewhen it was time to begin eliminating them.The code would be “cut the tall trees”. Various human rights groups began to begthe international community to intervene.
    •  On April 6, 1994, the plane that wascarrying the Hutu president was shotdown. Hutu rebels immediately blamedthe Tutsis. The Rwandan Armed Forces went houseto house killing Tutsis. They also killedpoliticians that they believed had“tricked” the president into acceptingthe idea of a peace agreement.
    •  They wiped out entire neighborhoods ata time. It is estimated that at least 200,000people participated in the violenceagainst the Tutsis. Hutus that chose not to participate in themass killings were killed themselves. Tutsi women were captured and brutallyassaulted at the hands of Tutsi rebels.
    •  Soldiers from the United Nationsdesperately wanted to help the Tutsis,but they had only been given orders to“monitor” the situation. After repeated requests for permission tointervene were denied, the soldiersaccepted their fate and watched idly ashundreds of thousands of Tutsi citizenswere killed.
    •  Belgian soldiers had been assigned toprotect the Hutu prime minister since hewas seen as “moderate”. Hutu rebels killed the prime minister and theBelgian troops. They were tortured, shotand hacked to death with machetes. Instead of sending in more troops, theUnited Nations decided to cut the numberof troops stationed in Rwanda (the troopswere reduced from 2500 to 250).
    •  24 days later(April 30, 1994), the UnitedNations Security Counsel met to discussthe situation in Rwanda. They condemned the acts of the Hutumilitia, but they were very careful not touse the word “genocide” in theirmeeting. Had they described the situation as“genocide”, they would have beenforced to act.
    •  Had the word “genocide” actually beenused, the Security Counsel would havehad a legal obligation to “prevent andpunish” those committing the crimes. Thousands of Rwandans were able toflee to nearby countries, but hundreds ofthousands continued to be slaughtered.
    •  17 days later (May 17, 1994), the UnitedNations makes the decision to send in6800 troops. Troops were not immediately sent inbecause of infighting between theUnited States and the other members ofthe U. N. over who was going to pay forthe troops and the equipment.
    •  The U. N. dispatched French soldiers(instead of an international police force)into Rwanda to establish Refugee campsand “safe areas” for the fleeing Tutsis. Killings continue and eventually spreadto the “safe” areas.
    •  June 22, 1994, more than two monthsafter the killings began, the United Statesfinally uses the word“GENOCIDE”. Ethiopian troops are dispatched. Aninternational police force is still not sentin. The killings continue.
    •  4 months later in November, the UnitedNations appoints an international courtand gives them power to prosecuteanyone suspected of being involved ingenocide. It would be a year beforethey would issue their first indictments. Meanwhile, the West joined togetherand pledged to send $600 million to helpaid the Rwandans.
    •  September 20, 1995, Pope John Paul IItraveled to Africa and pleaded forpeace in Rwanda. In December 1996, trials finally began forHutus that were involved in the 1994genocide. In December 1999, a Hutu militia leaderwas found guilty for his role in the 1994murders.