Chinese Nationalists vs. Communistforces• The U.S.’s policy of containment led to theirinvolvement in several conflicts in Asia.• Chinese Nationalists had been struggling withCommunist forces before WWII.• During the war, they temporarily put theirstrife on hold to fight against Japanese troopswho were invading their land.• After WWII ended, the strife between the twogroups resumed.
Financial Assistance• The U. S. didn’t want to see China fall toCommunism, so they sent the ChineseNationalists $2 billion to aid them in their fight.• Due to corruption and incompetence, the moneywas squandered and not used for its intendedpurpose.• By 1949, the Chinese capital of Beijing wascaptured by Communist forces.• This was also the same year that the Sovietstested their 1st atomic bomb.
Communism-the law of the land• After Beijing fell to Communism, the U. S. quitsending them financial assistance.• The Communist Party successfully established thePeople’s Republic of China in October of 1949.• Less than 1 year later, the People’s Republic ofChina signed a treaty with the Soviet Union.• The U. S. and other Western nations began tofear that China and the Soviet Union would beginspreading Communism to other Europeannations.
Making friends with Japan• After China (who had been our best ally inAsia) fell to Communism, the U. S. realizedthat they needed to change their policyregarding Japan.• They began to help Japan try to rebuild theirindustries.• West Germany would be our key to defendingEurope against Communism and Japan wouldbe our key to defending Communism in Asia.
Dividing the Territory• Japan controlled the Korean peninsula until theend of WWII.• Once the Allies was sure that Japan was going tobe defeated, they agreed to allow Korea to beindependent.• The leaders decided to divide Korea along the38th parallel.• The top portion of Korea would be North Koreaand would be Communist. The Southern portionwould be non-Communist.
The Division of KoreaSoviet troops would control the Northern partof Korea while the Americans controlled theSouth Korea.
MilitarismThere wasconstant tensionbetween NorthKorea and SouthKorea.The Soviet Unionbegan supplyingNorth Korea withmilitary assistance.This aid allowedthem to quicklybuild up an army.
Reasons for War• June 25, 1950, North Korean troops invaded theSouth Korean border.• South Korean troops were ill-equipped to fightthe Northern forces and were easily defeated bythe North Korean troops.• Since the United States is allied with South Korea,they quickly came to their defense by sending inthe Navy and the Air Force.• When U. S. forces advanced into North Korea,their ally (China) came to their defense.
Support from the United NationsTruman asked forassistance from theUN and succeeded ingetting it because theSoviet representativewasn’t present forthe vote (He hadbeen boycotting theUN over its decisionconcerning China).With the U. N. firmlybehind him, Trumanordered GeneralDouglas MacArthurto remove Americantroops from Japanand send them toKorea.
Inchon Landing• In September of 1950, General MacArthurordered an invasion at the port of Inchon.• This completely caught the North Koreans bysurprise.• They were forced to flee back across the 38thparallel into North Korea.• MacArthur’s troops continued to push theNorth Korean troops until they reached theborder with China at the Yalu River.
China Enters the WarThe People’s Republic of China warned the UN troops againstcontinuing to advance near their border.After their warnings were ignored, Chinese troops were sent in toforce UN troops back across the 38th parallel.General MacArthur was so angered by the actions of the Chinesetroops that he asked for approval to expand the war to includeblockades of Chinese ports and nuclear bombings of Chinese cities.
The Firing of General MacArthur• Truman was adamantly against expanding thewar into China.• General MacArthur was so upset withTruman’s decision that he began to publiclycriticize him and the direction of the war.• Truman was forced to fire MacArthur forinsubordination in April 1951.
MacArthur goes Home• Even after Truman fired General MacArthur,he remained popular with the public.• It was Truman’s popularity that began tosuffer among many Americans at home.• Congress and the military did supportTruman’s commitment to a “limited war”.• Truman did not want a nuclear war to breakout in Europe.
SEATO• After the Korean War, the U. S. became moreinvolved in Asia.• The signed defense agreements with SouthKorea, Taiwan, the Philippines, and Australia.• The U. S. also began sending aid to Frenchforces who were fighting communism inVietnam.
The Armistice• North Korea and South Korea never officiallyended the war.• They signed an armistice in 1953 to end the 3year war.• An armistice is a truce, not an official peacetreaty. Since it’s not an official end to the war,either side can re-declare war.• North Korea has done this 3 times since 1953:2003, 2009, and 2013.
Casualties of WarNorth Korea lostapproximately 1million soldiers.South Korea lostapproximately 1.2million soldiers.The United Stateslost approximately50,000 soldiers.China lostapproximately600,000 soldiers.
Effects of War• After the war, thousands of families wereseparated.• The border between North Korea and SouthKorea is currently the most fortified border inthe world.• The fortified border that separates North andSouth Korea is 155 miles long and 2.5 mileswide.