Inclusion means teaching students with disabilities in the same
environment as their peers without disabilities.
(Hallahan, D., Kauffamsn, J. & Pullen, P.)
Kids Together, INC suggests that inclusion is more than just a
placement in a classroom. It helps students feel included in
participating in day to day activities as part of a community,
which is a necessary life skill.
IDEA advances the legal notion of providing services and
education in the least restrictive environment, which includes
Section 504 reinforces the IDEA statement of inclusion with
FAPE (Free and Appropriate Public Education). If the least
restrictive environment for a student with disabilities is the
general classroom, then, by law, this should be their placement.
Inclusion begins with the teacher. A teacher must possess
certain characteristics in order to be fully supportive and
effective in an inclusive classroom.
They are informed
They avoid stereotypes and biases
They have a positive attitude
They are collaborative with others
(Mumford, v. & Chandler, J.)
Labeled Classroom Areas
Sensory Trigger Awareness
One-to-One Teacher Time
Multiple Modes of Communication
(Deris, A. &Carlo, C.)
Inclusion involves the general education teacher and the special
education working together to teach students in the least
“The difference between effective and ineffective inclusion may
lie in the teacher’s beliefs about who has primary responsibility
for students with special education needs.”
( Jordan, A., Schwartz, E. & McGhie-Richmond, D.)
Advocate for Resources
Tailor Teaching Methods
Teamwork within School
Good Rapport with Parents and Students
Build a Climate of Acceptance
(Lindsay, S., Proulx, M., Scott, H. & Thomson, N.)
Co-teaching is a strategy in which a general teacher and special
education teacher work together to teach all students the
There are six methods of co-teaching
One Teach/ One Observe
One Drift/One Teach
(Friend, M., Cook, L., Hurley-Chambertain, D. & Shamberger, C.)
“One Teach/ One Observe student support, plausibly the least
inclusive form of instruction, emerged as the most prevalent
type of support provided in inclusive classrooms.”
(Kilanawski-Press, L., Foote, C. & Rinaldo, V.)
How to Improve Inclusionary Practices?
Boost Disability Awareness
Include Disability Games/Sports
Ensure Leadership Oppurtunities
Present Role Models
Provide Same units for All
(James, A., Kellman, M. & Leberman, L.)
Students with and without disabilities can learn important
lessons about shared responsibilities, creative problem solving
and cooperation by working together.
(Carter, E., Swedeen, B. & Moss, C.)
According to Almon, S. & Feng, J., research shows that co-
teaching was more effective than solo-teaching because it
closes the achievement gap for students with IEP’s as compared
to their peers.
In order for co-teaching to be successful teachers need:
Shared Planning Time
(Van Hover, S., Hicks, D. & Sayeski, K.)
General and Exceptional Educators skills for successful co-teaching
Collaborative Lesson Planning
(Brinkmann, J. & Twiford, T.)
“General and special educators offer unique skill sets and
perspectives in the development of collaborative plans for
embedding social opportunities for students with disabilities.”
(Hart, J. & Whalon, K.)
General Educators offer expertise in curriculum content,
classroom routines, procedures and instructional activities.
Special Educators examine contexts of school and classroom
settings, then determine appropriate social and behavioral
supports aligning with IEP goals and objectives.
(Hart, J. & Whalon, K.)
Almon, S. & feng, J. (2012). Co-teaching vs. solo-teaching: Effect on
fouth graders’ math achievement. Mid-South Educational
Research Association Annual Conference, 33pps.
Brinkman, J. & Twiford, T. (2012). Voices from the field: Skill sets
needed for effective collaboration and co-teaching.
International Journal of Educational Leadership Preparation,
Carter, E., Swedeen, B. & Moss, C. (2012). Engaging you with and
without significant disabilities in inclusive service learning.
Teaching Exceptional Children, 44(5), 46-54.
Deris, A. & Carlo, C. (2013). Support for learning. Autism and
Inclusion, 28(2), 52-56.
Hart, J. & Whalon, K. (2011). Creating social opportunities' for
students with autism spectrum disorder in inclusive
settings. Interventions in School and Clinic, 46(5), 273-
Hallahan, D., Kauffman, J. & Pullen, P. (2012). Exceptional
learners: An introduction to special education. Pearson
Education, Inc: New Jersey.
Friend, M., Cook, L., Hurley-Chambertain, D. & Shamberger, C.
(2010). Co-teaching: An illustration of the complexity in
special education. Journal of Educational and
Psychological Consultation, 20(1), 9-27.
James, A., Kellman, M. & Lieberman, L. (2011). Perspectives on
inclusion from students with disabilities and responsive
strategies for teachers. JOPERD: The Journal of Physical
Education, Recreation & Dance, 28(1),33-54.
Jordan, A., Schwartz, E. & McGhie-Richmond, D. (2009).
Preparing teacher’s for inclusive classrooms. Teaching
and Teacher Education: An International Journal of
Research and Studies, 25(4), 535-542.
Kilanawski-Press, L., Foote, C. & Rinaldo, V. (2010). Inclusion
classrooms and teachers: A survey of current practices.
International Journal of Special Education, 25(3), 43-56.
Lindsay, S., Proulx, M., Scott, H. & Thomson, N. (2014).
Exploring teachers’ strategies for including children
with autism spectrum disorder in mainstream
classrooms. International Journal of Inclusive Education,
Mumford, V. & Chandler, J. (2009). Strategies for supporting
inclusive education for students with disabilities.
Strategies: A Journal for Physical and Sport Educators,
Kids Together , INC. (2009). What is inclusion?
http://www.kidstogether.org/inclusion Accessed 2 May
Taylor, K. (2011). Inclusion and the law: Two laws-IDEA and
section 504-Support inclusion in schools. Education
Digest, 76(9), 48-51.
Van Hover, S., Hicks, D. & Sayeski, K. (2012). A case study of co-
teaching in an inclusive secondary high-stakes world
history classroom. Theory and Research in Social
Education, 40(3), 260-291.
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