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Chapter 10 powerpoint
Chapter 10 powerpoint
Chapter 10 powerpoint
Chapter 10 powerpoint
Chapter 10 powerpoint
Chapter 10 powerpoint
Chapter 10 powerpoint
Chapter 10 powerpoint
Chapter 10 powerpoint
Chapter 10 powerpoint
Chapter 10 powerpoint
Chapter 10 powerpoint
Chapter 10 powerpoint
Chapter 10 powerpoint
Chapter 10 powerpoint
Chapter 10 powerpoint
Chapter 10 powerpoint
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Chapter 10 powerpoint

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  • 1. Developing Classroom Speaking Activities; From Theory to Practice Written By: Jack C Richards
  • 2. Brown and Yule (1983) distinguished the difference between the interactional function of speaking and transactional functions.
  • 3. Expanded version of Brown & Yule’s framework (after Jones 1996 & Burns 1998) Three Types of Talk: <ul><li>Talk as interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Talk as transaction </li></ul><ul><li>Talk as performance </li></ul>
  • 4. Talk as Interaction <ul><li>This type of talk describes interactions which serves as a social function (conversation). </li></ul>
  • 5. Talk an Interaction CHIT CHAT, Small Talk, Greetings
  • 6. Features of Talk as Interaction Richards (p.2) <ul><li>~Has a primary social function </li></ul><ul><li>~Reflects role relationships </li></ul><ul><li>~Reflects speaker’s identity </li></ul><ul><li>~May be formal or casual </li></ul><ul><li>~Uses conversational conventions </li></ul><ul><li>~Reflect degrees of politeness </li></ul><ul><li>~Employs many generic words </li></ul><ul><li>~Uses conversational register </li></ul><ul><li>~Is jointly constructed </li></ul>
  • 7. Skills Involved in Using Talk as Interaction Richards (p.3) <ul><li>Opening and Closing Conversations </li></ul><ul><li>Choosing Topics </li></ul><ul><li>Making Small Talk </li></ul><ul><li>Recounting personal incidents and experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Turn-talking </li></ul><ul><li>Using adjacency-pairs </li></ul><ul><li>Interrupting </li></ul><ul><li>Reacting to others </li></ul>
  • 8. Talk as Interaction <ul><li>There are 2 focuses of talk as transaction: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1.) Focus 1 =giving and receiving information and the focus is on what is said or achieved. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Asking someone for the time. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2.) Focus 2= obtaining goods or services. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Checking into a hotel room. </li></ul></ul>
  • 9. Talk as Transaction <ul><li>This type of talk focuses on what is said or done. </li></ul><ul><li>The focus is to be clear and accurate during talk. </li></ul>
  • 10. Talk as Transaction Focus is on what is said or done!!!
  • 11. The Main Features of Talk as Transaction are: Richards (p.4) <ul><li>It has a primary information focus </li></ul><ul><li>The main focus is the message and not the participants </li></ul><ul><li>Participants employ communication strategies to make themselves understood </li></ul><ul><li>There may be frequent questions, repetitions, and comprehension checks </li></ul><ul><li>There may be negotiations and digression </li></ul><ul><li>Linguistic accuracy is not always important </li></ul>
  • 12. Skills Involved in Using Talk as Transaction Richards (p.4) <ul><li>Explaining a need or intention </li></ul><ul><li>Describing something </li></ul><ul><li>Asking questions </li></ul><ul><li>Confirming information </li></ul><ul><li>Justifying an opinion </li></ul><ul><li>Making suggestions </li></ul><ul><li>Clarifying understanding </li></ul><ul><li>Making comparisons </li></ul><ul><li>Agreeing and disagreeing </li></ul>
  • 13. Talk as Performance <ul><li>This type of talk transmits information before an audience such as morning talks, public announcement, and speeches. </li></ul>
  • 14. Talk as Performance Performing, Speeches, and Announcements
  • 15. The Main Features of Talk as Performance Richards (p. 5) <ul><li>There is a focus on both message and audience </li></ul><ul><li>It reflects organization and sequencing </li></ul><ul><li>Form and accuracy is important </li></ul><ul><li>Language is more like written language </li></ul><ul><li>It is often monologic </li></ul>
  • 16. Skills Involved in Talk a a Performance Richards (p.5) <ul><li>Using an appropriate format </li></ul><ul><li>Presenting information in an appropriate sequence </li></ul><ul><li>Maintaining audience engagement </li></ul><ul><li>Using correct pronunciation and grammar </li></ul><ul><li>Creating an effect on the audience </li></ul><ul><li>Using appropriate vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>Using appropriate opening and closing </li></ul>
  • 17. Implications for Teaching <ul><li>Talk as an interaction can be taught through providing examples embedded in naturalistic dialogs. </li></ul><ul><li>Talk as transaction can be taught by providing sources for practicing how to use talk for sharing and obtaining information. </li></ul><ul><li>Talk as performance can be taught by providing examples or models of speeches, oral presentations, videos, and audio recordings. </li></ul>

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