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Chapter 10 powerpoint Chapter 10 powerpoint Presentation Transcript

  • Developing Classroom Speaking Activities; From Theory to Practice Written By: Jack C Richards
  • Three Types of Talk:
    • Talk as an interaction
    • Talk as a transaction
    • Talk as performance
  • Talk as an Interaction
    • This type of talk describes interactions which serves as a social function (conversation).
    View slide
  • Features of Talk as an Interaction
    • ~Has a primary social function
    • ~Reflects role relationships
    • ~Reflects speaker’s identity
    • ~May be formal or casual
    • ~Uses conversational conventions
    • ~Reflect degrees of politeness
    • ~Employs many generic words
    • ~Uses conversational register
    • ~Is jointly constructed
    View slide
  • Skills Involved in Using Talk as an Interaction
    • Opening and Closing Conversations
    • Choosing Topics
    • Making Small Talk
    • Recounting personal incidents and experiences
    • Turn-talking
    • Using adjacency-pairs
    • Interrupting
    • Reacting to others
  • Talk as an Interaction
    • There are 2 focuses of talk as transaction:
      • 1.) Focus 1 =giving and receiving information and the focus is on what is said or achieved.
      • Example: Asking someone for the time.
      • 2.) Focus 2= obtaining goods or services.
      • Example: Checking into a hotel room.
  • Talk as a Transaction
    • This type of talk focuses on what is said or done.
  • The Main Features of Talk as Transaction are:
    • It has a primary information focus
    • The main focus is the message and not the participants
    • Participants employ communication strategies to make themselves understood
    • There may be frequent questions, repetitions, and comprehension checks
    • There may be negotiations and digression
    • Linguistic accuracy is not always important
  • Skills Involved in Using Talk for Transaction
    • Explaining a need or intention
    • Describing something
    • Asking questions
    • Confirming information
    • Justifying an opinion
    • Making suggestions
    • Clarifying understanding
    • Making comparisons
    • Agreeing and disagreeing
  • Talk as Performance
    • This type of talk transmits information before an audience such as morning talks, public announcement, and speeches.
  • The Main Features of Talk as a Performance
    • There is a focus on both message and audience
    • It reflects organization and sequencing
    • Form and accuracy is important
    • Language is more like written language
    • It is often monologic
  • Skills Involved in Talk a a Performance
    • Using an appropriate format
    • Presenting information in an appropriate sequence
    • Maintaining audience engagement
    • Using correct pronunciation and grammar
    • Creating an effect on the audience
    • Using appropriate vocabulary
    • Using appropriate opening and closing
  • Implications for Teaching
    • Talk as an interaction can be taught through providing examples embedded in naturalistic dialogs.
    • Talk as transaction can be taught by providing sources for practicing how to use talk for sharing and obtaining information.
    • Talk as performance can be taught by providing examples or models of speeches, oral presentations, videos, and audio recordings.