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Political realignment2


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  • 1. Political Realignment
  • 2. Stephen Douglas’s Railroad Proposal
    A transcontinental railroad would secure the union
    Removing the “Indian Barrier” was the only way to accomplish this
    He proposed to establish a government for the Nebraska Territory to establish a northern route for the railroad
    Southerner’s defeated the proposal
    They were upset because the route was in the north and the new Nebraska Territory was above the Missouri Compromise line
  • 3. Kansas Nebraska Act
    Stephen Douglas’s reaction to the southern disagreement with his first proposal
    Splits the Nebraska territory in two : Kansas and Nebraska
    Establishes popular sovereignty in both territories
    This allows southerner’s to bring slaves into an area that formerly banned slaves
  • 4. Kansas Nebraska Act
    Repeals the Missouri Compromise
    Anger’s politicians in the north
    “part and parcel of an atrocious plot” to make a free territory a “dreary region of despotism, inhabited by masters and slaves”
    Passes into law
    Douglas is hated in the north
    he says to an angry mob “It’s Sunday, I’m going to Church, and you can go to hell”
  • 5. Kansas Nebraska ACt
  • 6. Bleeding Kansas
    Kansas has the right location and climate to support slavery
    Massive drive to bring settlers to Kansas from both North and South
    Politicians have strong words from both sides
    Missouri residents began to move west
    Antislavery organizations fund and arm migrants
  • 7. Bleeding Kansas
    Fraudulent votes from Missouri residents allow proslavery people to elect a territorial government
    Pass laws making aiding a fugitive slave a capital crime
    Makes talking against slavery a felony
    Free-staters establish their own government in Topeka
  • 8. Bleeding Kansas
    A small civil war errupts
    Dubbed “Bleeding Kansas” by journalists
    “The sack of Lawrence
    Pottawatomie Creek
    John Brown
    Killed 5 men with broadswords
    Senator Brooks hits Senator Sumner with his walking cane
  • 9. Northern Political Re-alignment
    Northern Democrats, Northern Whigs, and Free-soilers
    Slavery was the main reason for the re-alignment
    Immigration and Religion
    Both anti-immigrant and anti-catholic
    Want to ignore the slavery issue
    They support public health and education
  • 10. Republican Party
    Formed from northern Know Nothings, Northern Whigs and Democrats
    Strong state and federal governments to promote economy and social reform
    Overriding bond in their opposition to the extension of slavery
    Sectional in nature
    They directly Oppose the Democrats who are top heavy with Southerners
  • 11. Election of 1856
    Republicans and Know Nothings face a national election for the first time
    Democrats are divided
    James Buchanan – Pennsylvania
    Republicans and “North Americans”
    John C. Fremont
    Split Know Nothings
    “South Americans” – Millard Fillmore
    Buchanan Wins
  • 12. The Dred Scott Case
    Dred Scott is a slave owned by an army surgeon in Missouri
    He traveled with his master to Illinois and Wisconsin
    While traveling his master dies
    He sues his widow for freedom based on the grounds that Illinois and Wisconsin territory barred slavery
  • 13. The Dred Scott Case
    The case reaches the supreme court
    5 of the 9 justices are from slave states
    Chief Justice Roger Taney
    They dismiss the suit for two reasons
    Black people are not citizens of the United States and therefore Dred Scott cannot sue
    Slaves are “beings of an inferior order…so far inferior that they had no rights which the white man was bound to respect”
  • 14. The Dred Scott Case
    Black people are not citizens of the United States and therefore Dred Scott cannot sue
    Slaves are “beings of an inferior order…so far inferior that they had no rights which the white man was bound to respect”
    Even if Dred Scott could sue, his residence in Wisconsin did not make him free because the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional
    The compromise deprived citizens of their property (slaves) without due process which violated the Fifth Amendment
    Essentially Taney rules that congress cannot bar slavery from the territories
  • 15. Lecompton Constitution
    Free-staters in Kansas boycott the June election
    Fear that pro-slavery would make fraudulent votes
    They do vote in October and win, but there are some irregularities
    20 voters had cast 1200 votes for proslavery candidates
    In one community of 6 houses 1600 names were at the polls – all in the same handwriting – all from the Cincinnati city directory
  • 16. Lecompton Constitution
    Although free-staters controlled the territorial legislature, pro-slavery forces created a constitution that allowed slavery in Kansas
    Buchanan ignored official pleas to not allow the constitution – violates the Kansas Nebraska Act
    Popular sovereignty
    Passes the senate, but the house rejects it
  • 17. Lincoln Douglas Debates
    Stephen Douglas – Northern Democrat
    Abraham Lincoln – Republican
    Kentucky Born Lawyer
    Married rich – Mary Todd
    Strongly opposed extension of slavery
    Excellent speaker
    Sense of Humor
    Demeanor fit well with his constituency
    Senate Race in Illinois
  • 18. Lincoln Douglas Debate
    Lincoln was new to the senate race
    Douglas called him a radical
    “The United States, like ‘a house divided against itself,’ could not ‘endure permanently half slave and half free’”
    Lincoln responds by challenging Douglas to a series of debates in Illinois
    Douglas reluctantly agrees to 7 out of the 9 districts
  • 19. Lincoln Douglas Debate
    The debates change the course of American politics
    People from all over would come with their families and picnic baskets to listen
    Put the issue into sharp focus and defined the difference between:
    Republican and Democrat
    North and south
    Lincoln and Douglas
  • 20. Lincoln Douglas Debates
    Slavery issue
    Not a moral issue; if whites want slavery so be it, if they don’t so be it
    Slavery is a moral issue
    “The real issue in this controversy is the sentiment on the part of one class that looks upon the institution of slavery as a wrong, and of another class that does not look upon it as a wrong. The Republican party look upon it as being a moral, social, and political wrong and one of the methods of treating it as a wrong is to make provision that it shall grow no larger. That is the real issue. It is the eternal struggle between these two principles, right and wrong, throughout the world.”
  • 21. Lincoln Douglas Debates
    Lincoln balanced his ideas about slavery with practical politics
    He distanced himself from abolitionists
    He and the Republican party were anti-slavery but were not advocates of racial equality
    The debates brought Lincoln into the political scene but he lost the senate race
  • 22. North and South Differences
    North: Urban and Industrial
    South: Rural and Agricultural
    Social and Religious
    More violent
    Values of Courtesy, honor and courage
    Military service
    High Illiteracy
    Education – Public Schools
    Evangelical Protestantism
  • 23. Harper’s Ferry
    John Brown
    Fund Raising for violent frontier campaign
    He returns to Kansas to find peace
    He decides to attach a federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Virginia
    He hopes to spark a slave uprising
    He captures the arsenal and waits for slaves to rally
    The Virginia militia and Colonel Robert E. Lee quickly put down the Raid
  • 24. Harper’s Ferry
    Lincoln – “It was not a slave insurrection. It was an attempt by white men to get up a revolt among slaves, in which the slaves refused to participate.”
    He is sentenced to Hang in Virginia
    Some regard him as a martyr
    This really freaks out the South
  • 25. The Election of 1860
    Democratic Party
    Charleston South Carolina convention
    Northern Democrats -Stephen Douglas – no 2/3
    Extremists favor secession – want Republicans to win
    South Carolina, Florida, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas walk out
    Reconvene in Baltimore in June
  • 26. Election of 1860
    The delegates from the upper south refuse to seat the delegates who walked out in Charleston
    They Nominate Stephen Douglas
    Lower South Democrats Nominate John C. Breckinridge
    Upper South Whigs create the Constitutional Union party and nominate John Bell
  • 27. Election of 1860
    The Republican convention saw two candidates: Lincoln and Seward
    Seward’s strong hate for slavery and slaveholders disadvantaged him
    Lincoln separated himself from abolitionists and Seward – Moderate Morality
    Lincoln wins the Republican Nomination
  • 28. Election of 1860
    Campaign in the south was Bell and Breckinridge
    Campaign in the north was Lincoln and Douglas
    Republicans won the state house in Indian and Pennsylvania and Lincoln’s election was inevitable
    Lincoln won with 40% of the vote – Becomes the 16th President
  • 29. Secession
    Four days after Lincoln’s victory South Carolina calls a convention to consider secession
    December 20, 1860 It’s delegates vote unanimously to leave the Union
    February 1, 1861 – Six other states decide to leave
    The seven ceding states meet to form a country – Confederate States of America
    Jefferson Davis is Sworn in as President on February 18, 1861
  • 30. Secession
    The people who decided on secession spoke highly of democratic freedom but did not put the decision of session to a popular vote
    They also, for many generations, claimed that secession was all about state’s rights, the most important of which was slavery
  • 31. Secession
    CSA Vice President Alexander H. Stephens on the Confederate Constitution:
    “The new constitution has put at rest forever all the agitating questions relating to our peculiar institution, African slavery as it exists amongst us, the proper status of the negro in our form of civilization. This was the immediate cause of the late rupture and present revolution. Our new government’s foundations are laid, its cornerstone rests, upon the great truth that the negro is not equal to the white man; that slavery, subordination to the superior race is his natural and normal condition”
  • 32. Secession
    Secession was least popular among small non-slaveholding farmers
    Secessionists create powerful propaganda
    Secession is a personal challenge to every southerner
    It’s cowardly to remain in the union
    Remaining in the union is submitting to despotism and enslavement
    Southerner’s were the true heirs of 1776
    Northerners – Lincoln – meant to deprive Southerners the right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness