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GRAMMAR BASICS: PARTS OF SPEECH Noun: a person, place or thing. boy, dog, church, car, ball, school Verb: an action or state of being. is, swim, eat, run, be, do, sing, laugh Adjective: a description word that modifies a noun. windy, dark, funny, tall, boring, purple. Adverb: a description word that modifies a verb (explains how the verb is done). slowly, quickly, lightly, happily, much Article: three words used to signal that a noun is about to be used. a, an, the.
GRAMMAR BASICS: PARTS OF SPEECH Conjunction: a word that connects other words, phrases or sentences. and, but, because Interjection: a word or phrase used as an exclamation and capable of standing alone. Oh! My goodness! Gosh! Darn-it! Preposition: a word or phrase that show the relationship of a noun to another noun. at, from, to, from, with, by, in Pronoun: a word that replaces and stands for another noun. his, her, their, them, she, he, they, which
GRAMMAR BASICS These words or phrases have different “roles”, or do different things in the English Language, depending on how they are arranged in sentences. Subject: is the noun that performs the verb in a sentence. Andrew threw the ball. (Andrew is the subject) Direct Object: is the noun that is affected by the verb. Andrew threw the ball. (The ball is the object) Indirect Object: tells to whom or for whom something is done. The indirect object always comes between the verb and the direct object. She gave me a gift. (Me is the indirect object)
GRAMMAR BASICS In a sentence, you have a subject and a predicate. The subject is the word(s) that the sentence is about. The predicate is the verb phrase, or group of words, that explain what happens, or the action of the sentence. Jenny walked to the store. The wind blew the power out. The cats pooped in the litter box.The subjects are Jenny, the wind and the cats. The predicates are the verb phrases that make up the rest of the sentence.
GRAMMAR BASICS Complements: come in two types. Subject Complementsdefine or explain the subject of the sentence after a linking verb.The weather is hot. The lake is peaceful. (Hot and peaceful are the subject complements) Object Complements define or explain the object of the sentence. The videogame got the children too excited. (Excited is the object complement)
LINKING VERBS Linking Verbs: connect the subject of the verb to additional information. The most common linking verb is any form of the verb “to be”.Jenny is a black belt in Karate. My cats are sleeping. We were in line at the movies. (Is, are, were are all linking verbs and all forms of “to be”) These are all of the forms of “to be”. All of these are TRUE linking verbs: Am, Is, Is being, Are, Are being, Was, Was being, Were, Has, Has been, Have been, Will have been, Had been, Are being, Might have been. As well as all forms of “become” and “seem”.
SENTENCE STRUCTURE A sentence may be one of four kinds, depending upon the number and type(s) of clauses it contains.What are clauses? An independent clause contains a subject, a verb, and a complete thought. I wrote my first novel last year. A dependent clause contains a subject and a verb, but no complete thought.After I wrote my first novel.Now we can move on to the four kinds of sentences.
SENTENCE STRUCTUREA SIMPLE SENTENCE has one independentclause. Tom reads novels. Tom reads newspapers and novels. Tom doesn’t read novels. Tom reads and enjoys novels. Tom and Harry enjoy reading novels.
SENTENCE STRUCTUREA COMPOUND SENTENCE has two independent clauses joined by one of the following three things:a coordinating conjunction Coordinating conjunctions join equals to one another: words to words, phrases to phrases, clauses to clauses. Some coordinating conjunctions: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so (FANBOYS) Tom reads novels, but Jack reads comics.a conjunctive adverb Conjunctive adverbs join independent clauses together. Some conjunctive adverbs: After all, also, however, in addition, therefore Tom reads novels; however, Jack reads comicsa semicolon alone. A semicolon joins independent clauses (complete thoughts)Tom reads novels; Jack reads comics.
SENTENCE STRUCTUREA COMPLEX SENTENCE has one dependent clause joined to an independent clause. Although Tom reads novels, Jack reads comics. Jack reads comics although Tom reads novels. Jack, who reads comics, rarely reads novels. In the first example, the dependent clause is “Although Tom reads novels” and the independent clause is Jack reads comics. Complex sentences are created using connectors called subordinating conjunctions to connect the dependent and independent clauses. Some examples of these are: after, although, as, as, wherever, whenever, while, unless, as soon as, as though, because, before, since, though.
SENTENCE STRUCTUREA COMPOUND-COMPLEX SENTENCE has two independent clauses joined to one or more dependent clauses. While Tom reads novels, Jack reads comics but Sam only reads magazines. Tom reads novels, but Jack reads comics because books are too difficult. In the first example, the dependent clause is “While Tom reads novels” and the two independent clauses are “Jack reads comics” and “Sam only reads magazines”.
PUNCTUATIONThe colon used in the following situations. To introduce a list. You will have to order several accessory components: chargers, cases, cords, cables, and speakers. To introduce a quotation that follows an introductory sentence. As Author, Erica Jong, stated: “If you don’t risk anything, you risk even more.” In the greeting of a formal business letter. Dear Sir: or Dear Madam: Before a long explanation. There are two conditions that must exist before we can experience true freedom: first, each person must be entitled to act independently of the other; secondly, each must agree not cross those parameters that have been set in place as protection from harm. Before you restate an idea. The play was poorly performed: it lacked both experience and characterization from the actors.
PUNCTUATIONThe semicolon is used in the following situation. To separate two independent thoughts in a sentence that otherwise, would have been separated by using a conjunction such as “and” or “but”. It was the first of April; all the spring lines were on display.
PUNCTUATIONThe comma is used in the following situations. To separate items in a list, including the last two. He hit the ball, dropped the bat, and ran to first base. With a conjunction to separate independent clauses. He hit the ball well, but ran to third base. To set off introductory elements. Running toward the base, John was breathing hard. To set off parenthetical elements. Corey’s dream, of being an NHL goalie, is within reach. Before a quotation. She said, “I want to play hockey.”
RUN ONS AND FRAGMENTS A run-on is a sentence that really has TWO sentences (or complete ideas) INCORRECTLY combined into one. This happens when there is no punctuation or connecting word to break up the string of ideas. The computer is a useful tool it can be used for writing papers. My mother says I can go first I have to empty the garbage, though. Once a time there was a man his name was Josh. Bees don’t eat flowers they gather nectar from them then they go back to the hive. I heard the tires squeal then the car came around the corner I got out of the way fast.
RUN ONS AND FRAGMENTS How do I fix a run-on?Fixing a run-on sentence is a matter of detecting the sentence in the first place, and thenadding in a punctuation mark.To detect the presence of a run-on sentence, a student should re-read his or her work. Reading aloud tends to be more effective than reading to oneself because voice intonation reveals where individual sentences start and stop.
RUN ONS AND FRAGMENTS To understand how fragments are wrong, you first need to understand the 3 parts of a complete sentence.A complete sentence has:1. A subject (the actor/person/noun that the sentence is about).2. A predicate (the verb or the action).3. A complete thought (it can stand alone and make sense- it is independent).Some sentences can be very short, with only two or three words expressing a complete thought, like this:John waited.This sentence has a subject (John) and a verb (waited), and it expresses a complete thought. We can understand the idea completely with just those two words, so again, its independent—an independent clause.
RUN ONS AND FRAGMENTS A sentence fragment is an incomplete sentence. Some fragments are incomplete because they lack either a subject or a verb, or both. The fragments that most students have trouble with, however, are dependent clauses—they have a subject and a verb, so they look like complete sentences, but they dont express a complete thought. Theyre called "dependent" because they cant stand on their own. Many fragments are the products of misplaced SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS.
RUN ONS AND FRAGMENTS Look at these dependent clauses. Theyre just begging for more information to make the thoughts complete:Because his car was in the shop (What did he do?)After the rain stops (What then?)When you finally take the test (What will happen?)Since you asked (Will you get the answer?)If you want to go with me (What should you do?) Does each of these examples have a subject? Yes. Does each have a verb? Yes. So what makes the thought incomplete?? Its the first word (Because, After, When, Since, If). These words belong to a special class of words called subordinators or subordinating conjunctions. If you can pick out subordinating conjunctions, you can probably eliminate 90% of your fragments.
RUN ONS AND FRAGMENTS So, how do you find and fix your fragments?Remember the basics: subject, verb, and complete thought. If you can recognize those things, youre halfway there.Then, scan your sentences for subordinating conjunctions. If you find one, first identify the whole chunk of the dependent clause (the subject and verb that go with the subordinator), and then make sure theyre attached to an independent clause.
VERB-TENSE AGREEMENT Verb-Tense agreement means that all of your verbs agree with each other in time period. Shifts in tense can cause confusion- good writers make sure they keep the same tense throughout a piece of writing There are a few different types of tenses. They indicate when something is happening in a story. Simple Present: They walk Present Perfect: They have walked Simple Past: They walked Past Perfect: They had walked Future: They will walk Future Perfect: They will have walked
VERB-TENSE AGREEMENT For narratives (stories)- simple past For essays and formal writing- simple present As writers, we have the choice to make stylistic decisions about which tense we use but remember the importance of clarity for the reader
VERB-TENSE AGREEMENT General guideline: Do not shift from one tense to another if the time frame for each action or state is the same.1. The ocean contains rich minerals that washed down from rivers and streams.Contains is present tense, referring to a current state; washed down is past, but should be present (wash down) because the minerals are currently continuing to wash down.Corrected: The ocean contains rich minerals that wash down from rivers and streams.
VERB-TENSE AGREEMENTHints: Rely on past tense to narrate events and to refer to an author or an authors ideas as historical entities Use present tense to state facts and to discuss your own ideas or those expressed by an author in a particular work. Also use present tense to describe action in a literary work, movie, or other fictional narrative. Occasionally, for dramatic effect, you may wish to narrate an event in present tense as though it were happening now. If you do, use present tense consistently throughout the narrative, making shifts only where appropriate. Future action may be expressed in a variety of ways, including the use of will, shall, is going to, are about to, tomorrow and other adverbs of time, and can be used to encourage your reader to think about the future (perhaps at the end of a persuasive essay!).
PRONOUN-ANTECEDENT AGREEMENT A Pronoun is a word used in place of a noun. Usually pronouns refer to something that was already mentioned in previous sentence or understood by the listener or reader. They are very useful words because when you use them, you do not need to repeat nouns all the time.
PRONOUN-ANTECEDENT AGREEMENT When a pronoun replaces a word (or a group of words), the word being replaced is called an antecedent.Example: I wrote a letter to the president, who responded quickly. In that sentence, president is antecedent of the pronoun who.
PRONOUN-ANTECEDENT AGREEMENT Different kinds of pronouns:Personal: I, she, he, me, her/hers, his, their, mine, your/yours, our/ours, we, us, they, them, it, itsDemonstrative: This, that, these, thoseReflexive: Myself, yourself, herself, himselfIndefinite: No one, nothing, nobody, someone, somebody, something, every one, everybody, everything, anyone, anybody, anythingInterrogative: Who, whose, whom, which, what
PRONOUN-ANTECEDENT AGREEMENT Pronouns and Antecedents need to agree in1. Person (1st, 2nd, or 3rd)- I, you, he/she2. Number (Singular or plural)- his/her, their3. Gender (Male or Female)- he/she, him/her
PRONOUN-ANTECEDENT AGREEMENT Identify where the disagreement is and fix the following problems:1. If a person wants to succeed in corporate life, you have to know the rules of the game2. During early rehearsals, an actor may forget their lines3. The committee members put their signatures on the document.4. One of the students must give their oral report tomorrow.5. Most dogs are loyal to his or her owner.
TRANSITIVE/INTRANSITIVE VERBS Transitive Verbs are ACTION VERBS. They give an ACTION to an OBJECT. In other words, the object of the sentences receives the action of the verbExample:The judge sentences the man to five years in prison.The judge applies an action (sentencing) to an object (the man).
TRANSITIVE/INTRANSITIVE VERBS Intransitive verbs DO NOT pass an action onto an object. In other words, they don’t DO something to anything or anyone.Examples:James fell down.The cat lies there.Dan walks for miles.Every single person voted.
TRANSITIVE/INTRANSITIVE VERBS Lie is an INTRANSITIVE VERB:Lie down. (The verb isn’t being done to something) Lay is a TRANSITIVE VERBLay the book down. (The verb is doing something to the book)
TRANSITIVE/INTRANSITIVE VERBS Sit is an INTRANSITIVE VERB.Sit down. (Nothing is being “sat”)Set is a TRANSITIVE VERB.Set the keys on the table. (The keys are receiving the action)
TRANSITIVE/INTRANSITIVE VERBS Rise is an INTRANSITIVE VERBRise early in the morning. (Nothing is being “risen”)Raise is a TRANSITIVE VERBRaise a glass for the couple. (The glass is receiving the action)
TRANSITIVE/INTRANSITIVE VERBS Are the following sentences correct? If not, change the verb to make them correct.1. Lay down on the couch2. The house sets on top of the hill.3. She raises the shades.
NOTORIOUS CONFUSABLES Its- possessive/It’s- it is Your- possessive/You’re- you are Their- possessive/They’re- they are/There- place Accept- take on/Except- excluding Allusion- refer to/Illusion- fake/not real Affect- verb/Effect- noun Were- past tense/We’re- we are To- preposition/Two- number/Too- also Allot- give out/A lot- big amount