Ancient Rome

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Ancient Rome

  1. 1. Ancient Rome Ch. 13 Sec. 3 & 4
  2. 2. Early Peoples of Italy <ul><li>Rome grew from several small villages </li></ul><ul><li>Rome was first ruled by Latin kings </li></ul><ul><li>Established a republic , which is a government in which voters elect their leaders </li></ul>
  3. 3. Government & Society <ul><li>Early days of the Roman Republic, the heads of a small number of aristocratic families, known as patricians , elected officials from themselves to rule. </li></ul><ul><li>Common people were called plebeians , they also took part in government. </li></ul><ul><li>Consuls were two magistrates who ran the government and commanded the army. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Government & Society <ul><li>The center for all Roman society was the forum </li></ul><ul><li>Important focus of Roman life was army </li></ul><ul><li>Only citizens between the ages of 17 & 46 who owned property were required to serve in the military </li></ul>
  5. 5. 3 Bodies of Government <ul><li>The Senate (controlled the republic’s funds and relations with other governments) </li></ul><ul><li>Consuls (ran the government and commanded the army, ruled with the advice of the Senate) </li></ul><ul><li>Assemblies (made laws and elected officials) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Roman Expansion <ul><li>By 275 B.C., Rome controlled all of Italy </li></ul><ul><li>Rome came into conflict with Carthage, this started the First Punic War </li></ul><ul><li>The Carthaginians asked for peace finally…then their general Hannibal invaded Italy starting the Second Punic War. </li></ul><ul><li>He was finally defeated in 202 B.C. </li></ul><ul><li>Roman armies completely destroyed Carthage and conquered Greece. </li></ul><ul><li>The outcome of the Punic Wars was that Rome ruled land from the Atlantic to the Aegean. </li></ul>
  7. 7. The Gracchi <ul><li>The gov’t named Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus- the Gracchi -they wanted to help poor people. </li></ul><ul><li>They thought that land won through conquest should be given to poor workers </li></ul><ul><li>This angered the senate and caused a riot </li></ul><ul><li>Tiberius was killed during a riot & Gaius died soon after </li></ul><ul><li>Violence became a major political tool </li></ul>
  8. 8. 3 conflicts that changed Roman Republic <ul><li>Role of the army </li></ul><ul><li>Social War </li></ul><ul><li>Dictators </li></ul>
  9. 9. Julius Caesar <ul><li>Pompey, Caesar, and Crassus formed the First Triumvirate or “rule of three” </li></ul><ul><li>Caesar was such a good organizer that his fame grew and he became a hero. </li></ul><ul><li>Crassus died and Caesar defeated Pompey in a civil war. </li></ul><ul><li>The Senate declared Caesar dictator for life, however some senators didn’t agree and assassinated him in the Senate House. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Octavian <ul><li>Members of the Second Triumvirate included Octavian, Marc Antony, and a consul named Lepidus. </li></ul><ul><li>Lepidus was pushed aside and the other two decided to half the republic, but a civil war broke out. </li></ul><ul><li>Octavian defeated Marc Antony and his ally, Queen Cleopatra of Egypt. Later Antony and Cleopatra committed suicide. </li></ul><ul><li>Octavian ruled Rome alone. </li></ul><ul><li>Republic was gone and a new era was beginning. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Augustus Caesar <ul><li>The republic became an empire, which is a form of gov’t that united different places and people under one ruler. </li></ul><ul><li>The reign of Augustus Caesar was called the Pax Romana or “Roman Peace” which lasted more than 200 years. </li></ul><ul><li>Romans however paid for the price of peace b/c he limited the powers of the Senate and gave himself full control </li></ul><ul><li>Emperors after him abused this power. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Julio-Claudian Emperors <ul><li>Some were effective: Tiberius was a good leader. </li></ul><ul><li>Caligula-tortured and murdered people </li></ul><ul><li>Claudius-improved the gov’t, but was poisoned by his wife </li></ul><ul><li>Nero-mentally unstable, committed suicide </li></ul>
  13. 13. Good Emperors <ul><li>Trajan </li></ul><ul><li>Hadrian </li></ul><ul><li>Marcus Aurelius </li></ul>
  14. 14. Christianity <ul><li>Judea was the birthplace of Christianity. Jesus began to teach here. </li></ul><ul><li>His taught his followers to believe in only one God and love others as they loved themselves. </li></ul><ul><li>He performed miracles and defended the poor. </li></ul><ul><li>Jesus was arrested and sentenced to death by crucifixion b/c the authorities thought that Jesus thought he was above the law. </li></ul><ul><li>His disciples , or followers, believed that he rose from the dead and ascended to heaven. </li></ul><ul><li>Roman emperor Constantine converted to Christianity and it became the official religion of the Roman Empire. </li></ul>
  15. 16. Decline of the Empire <ul><li>Romans spent too much money entertaining themselves. </li></ul><ul><li>They trained slaves called gladiators to fight. </li></ul><ul><li>Crime increased. </li></ul><ul><li>Taxes went up. </li></ul><ul><li>Invasions made Rome weak. </li></ul><ul><li>The empire fell apart. </li></ul>

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