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Ancient Rome



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  • 1. Ancient Rome Ch. 13 Sec. 3 & 4
  • 2. Early Peoples of Italy
    • Rome grew from several small villages
    • Rome was first ruled by Latin kings
    • Established a republic , which is a government in which voters elect their leaders
  • 3. Government & Society
    • Early days of the Roman Republic, the heads of a small number of aristocratic families, known as patricians , elected officials from themselves to rule.
    • Common people were called plebeians , they also took part in government.
    • Consuls were two magistrates who ran the government and commanded the army.
  • 4. Government & Society
    • The center for all Roman society was the forum
    • Important focus of Roman life was army
    • Only citizens between the ages of 17 & 46 who owned property were required to serve in the military
  • 5. 3 Bodies of Government
    • The Senate (controlled the republic’s funds and relations with other governments)
    • Consuls (ran the government and commanded the army, ruled with the advice of the Senate)
    • Assemblies (made laws and elected officials)
  • 6. Roman Expansion
    • By 275 B.C., Rome controlled all of Italy
    • Rome came into conflict with Carthage, this started the First Punic War
    • The Carthaginians asked for peace finally…then their general Hannibal invaded Italy starting the Second Punic War.
    • He was finally defeated in 202 B.C.
    • Roman armies completely destroyed Carthage and conquered Greece.
    • The outcome of the Punic Wars was that Rome ruled land from the Atlantic to the Aegean.
  • 7. The Gracchi
    • The gov’t named Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus- the Gracchi -they wanted to help poor people.
    • They thought that land won through conquest should be given to poor workers
    • This angered the senate and caused a riot
    • Tiberius was killed during a riot & Gaius died soon after
    • Violence became a major political tool
  • 8. 3 conflicts that changed Roman Republic
    • Role of the army
    • Social War
    • Dictators
  • 9. Julius Caesar
    • Pompey, Caesar, and Crassus formed the First Triumvirate or “rule of three”
    • Caesar was such a good organizer that his fame grew and he became a hero.
    • Crassus died and Caesar defeated Pompey in a civil war.
    • The Senate declared Caesar dictator for life, however some senators didn’t agree and assassinated him in the Senate House.
  • 10. Octavian
    • Members of the Second Triumvirate included Octavian, Marc Antony, and a consul named Lepidus.
    • Lepidus was pushed aside and the other two decided to half the republic, but a civil war broke out.
    • Octavian defeated Marc Antony and his ally, Queen Cleopatra of Egypt. Later Antony and Cleopatra committed suicide.
    • Octavian ruled Rome alone.
    • Republic was gone and a new era was beginning.
  • 11. Augustus Caesar
    • The republic became an empire, which is a form of gov’t that united different places and people under one ruler.
    • The reign of Augustus Caesar was called the Pax Romana or “Roman Peace” which lasted more than 200 years.
    • Romans however paid for the price of peace b/c he limited the powers of the Senate and gave himself full control
    • Emperors after him abused this power.
  • 12. Julio-Claudian Emperors
    • Some were effective: Tiberius was a good leader.
    • Caligula-tortured and murdered people
    • Claudius-improved the gov’t, but was poisoned by his wife
    • Nero-mentally unstable, committed suicide
  • 13. Good Emperors
    • Trajan
    • Hadrian
    • Marcus Aurelius
  • 14. Christianity
    • Judea was the birthplace of Christianity. Jesus began to teach here.
    • His taught his followers to believe in only one God and love others as they loved themselves.
    • He performed miracles and defended the poor.
    • Jesus was arrested and sentenced to death by crucifixion b/c the authorities thought that Jesus thought he was above the law.
    • His disciples , or followers, believed that he rose from the dead and ascended to heaven.
    • Roman emperor Constantine converted to Christianity and it became the official religion of the Roman Empire.
  • 15.  
  • 16. Decline of the Empire
    • Romans spent too much money entertaining themselves.
    • They trained slaves called gladiators to fight.
    • Crime increased.
    • Taxes went up.
    • Invasions made Rome weak.
    • The empire fell apart.