• describe and explain the role and major
criticisms of the federal bureaucracy.
what is the federal
• the nation’s largest employer (2.7
• carries out the day-to-day work of the
– mail delivery, regulate businesses, collect
taxes, manage national forests etc.
what are the benefits of a
• hierarchical authority.
• job specialization.
• formalized rules.
criticisms of the federal
• “red tape.”
Executive Office of the
• The White House Office
• The National Security Council
• Office of Homeland Security
• Office of Management and Budget
• informal advisory body brought together by
the President to serve his needs.
– 15 different departments
– state, treasury, defense, justice, interior,
agriculture, commerce, labor, health and human
services, housing and urban development,
transportation, energy, education, veterans affairs,
• head of each department is appointed
by the President and confirmed by who?
• influential factors include:
– campaign role
• Set up outside the Cabinet departments.
• Why independent agencies?
– Not a good fit anywhere else (General
– Protected from partisan and pressure
examples of independent
• Social Security Administration
• Federal Election Commission
• Civil Rights Commission
• subject to the President’s direction and
• set up by Congress to carry out
• Amtrak, U.S. Postal Service, the FDIC,
the Tennessee Valley Authority etc.
• government regulation vs. private
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