European Front (1945)• Jan. 25 – Battle of the Bulge ends – Germany’s last offensive ends in defeat• April 12 – President Roosevelt dies – Harry S. Truman sworn in• April 21 – Soviets enter Berlin• April 30 – Hitler commits suicide• May 7 – Germany unconditionally surrenders• May 8 – V-E Day
Political Issues• Potsdam Conference – July 16 – Aug. 2, 1945 – meeting between “The Big Three” – decide Germany’s fate – create lasting international peace – discussed war in the Pacific
War in the Pacific (1945)• June 22 – Japanese resistance ends at Okinawa• July 14 – first bombs hit Japanese home islands• Japanese soldiers fight to the death – shaped decision to drop the A-Bomb• Japanese fear of enslavement
Pacific Theater (cont.)• Allies want unconditional surrender from Japan• August 6, 1945 – first atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima – 90,000 – 160,000 killed• August 9, 1945 – second atomic bomb dropped on Nagasaki – 60,000 – 80,000 killed• August 14 – Japan surrenders – Sept. 2 – V-J Day (Japan’s formal surrender)
“That is the question.”• To drop the bomb or to not drop the bomb?• Manhattan Project• called “The Gadget”• locations picked to “break the will of the people”• bombs called “Little Boy” and “Fat Man
Assignment• 1-page written paper• Answer These Questions – Do you feel the use of the atomic bombs was necessary? Why or why not? – Do you feel the dropping of the atomic bombs was morally justifiable? Why or why not? – Were there any military alternatives to dropping the atomic bombs that would have ended the war equally as fast? – Had the U.S. been more flexible about the demand for unconditional surrender, do you feel the Japanese would have surrendered sooner? – What implications do the dropping of the atomic bombs have on modern warfare and societies?