ADE 605Theory and Approaches in Art Education Syamsul Nor Azlan Mohamad Faculty Of Education Universiti Teknologi MARA
What is thinking? Beyer (1988) - thinking is the ability to attack a problem or task and solve it intelligently (or rationally) and provide a reasonable explanation for the solution. Fraenkel (1980) - thinking is the formation of ideas, reorganisation of ones experience and the organisation of information in a particular form. Chaffee (1988) - thinking is an unusual process used in making decisions and solving problems. Nickerson, Perkins and Smith (1985) - thinking is a collection of skills or mental operations used by individuals.
How does thinking work?
Thinking occurs when you: attack a problem or task and solve it intelligently (or rationally) and provide a reasonable explanation for the solution.
Different types of thinking Convergent thinking - This type of thinking is cognitive processing of information around a common point, an attempt to bring thoughts from different directions into a union or common conclusion. Divergent thinking - This type of thinking starts from a common point and moves outward into a variety of perspectives. Inductive thinking - This is the process of reasoning from parts to the whole, from examples to generalizations.
What is Analytical Thinking? Analytical thinking is the ability to scrutinize and break down facts and thoughts into their strengths and weaknesses. When you start looking at the pros and cons of a situation, you are actually breaking your thoughts into many parts and looking at different angles and possibilities.
What is Creative Thinking?Creative thinking, focuses on our thoughts towards change and newness, to play with ideas and possibilities, to be more flexible in thinking, while looking for ways to improve it. exploring ideas, generating possibilities, looking for many right answers rather than just one.
Thinking Outside of the Box…
Draw four straight lines (withoutlifting the pencil from paper)which will cross through all ninedots.
Vertical and Lateral ThinkingDr. Edward de Bono actually speaks aboutVertical Thinking High probability thinking. Thinker selects the most logical solution possible - the one that is the most used and the most tested oneLateral Thinking Low probability thinking. Thinker selects other less probable ways – the less used but possible ways.
What is creativity? Creativity is a mental process involving the discovery of new ideas or concepts, or new associations of the existing ideas or concepts, fueled by the process of either conscious or unconscious insight. Creativity has been associated with right brain activity or even specifically with lateral thinking. Creative ideas are often generated when one discards preconceived assumptions and attempts a new approach or method that might seem to others unthinkable.
Steps to a Creative Mind-setWonderment Try to retain a spirit of discovery, a childlike curiosity about the world. And question understandings that others consider obvious.Motivation As soon as a spark of interest arises in something, follow it.Intellectual courage Strive to think outside accepted principles and habitual perspectives such as “We’ve always done it that way.”Relaxation Take the time to daydream and ponder, because that is often when the best ideas arise. Look for ways to relax and consciously put them into practice.
What we should look at…Ideational fluency The number of ideas, sentences and associations a person can think of when presented with a word.
What we should look at…Variety and flexibility The diversity of different solutions a person can find when asked to explore the possible uses of, say, a newspaper or a paper clip.
What we should look at…Originality The ability to develop potential solutions other people do not reach.Elaboration. The skill to formulate an idea, expand on it, then work it into a concrete solution.
What we should look at…Problem sensitivity The ability to recognize the central challenge within a task, as well as the difficulties associated with it.Redefinition. The capacity to view a known problem in a completely different light.
The current scenario… Schools place overwhelming emphasis on teaching children to solve problems correctly, not creatively. Tests, grades, college admission, degrees and job placements demand and reward targeted logical thinking, factual competence, and language and math skills—all purviews of the left brain.
“If you always think the way you always thought, you’ll always get what you always got—the same old ideas.”