Week 4 Concepts of Learning


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Week 4 Concepts of Learning

  1. 1. ADE605Theory & Approaches in Art Education: Definitions of concepts: pedagogy, andragogy,teaching, & learning styles
  2. 2. Definitions of Pedagogy Pedagogue = a teacher, educator, a strict one Old French; Latin: paedagōgus, slave who supervised children and took them to and from school, from Greek paidagōgos : paido-, boy; + agōgos, leader or guide. Pedagogy is the art and science of helping children learn Androgogy = the art and science of helping adults learn pedagogy
  3. 3.  The art or science of teaching The study of methods and application of educational theory to create learning contexts and environments Pedagogical issues are related to teaching and learning pedagogy
  4. 4.  5 core principles: a. Commitment to students and learning b. Teachers know their subjects c. Teachers know how to teach those subjects d. Teachers are responsible to managing and monitoring student learning e. Teachers think systematicaly about their practices and learn from experiences pedagogy
  5. 5.  Quality pedagogy: a. Democratic classroom b. Assurance of quality learning opportunities c. Utilization of strong model of information processing d. Assurance of content standards being met e. Students at the centre of their own learning pedagogy
  6. 6. Pedagogy“the art and science of helping children learn”. VSAndragogy“the art and science of helping adults learn” Pedagogy-andragogy
  7. 7. Concept of Learner Pedagogy AndragogyDependent. Moves fromTeacher expected dependency toto determine what increasing self-is learned, when, directedness.and if it has been Teachers encourage and nurture movement Pedagogy-andragogy
  8. 8. Learner’s Experience Pedagogy AndragogyOf little value, People attach morelearners will gain meaning to learningthe most from gained fromteacher’s lecture, experience. Labstext related problem solving,mediums. discussions.(Deductive) (Inductive) Pedagogy-andragogy
  9. 9. Readiness to Learn Pedagogy AndragogyWith pressure, Experience a needpeople are ready to to learn.learn what society Educator providessays they ought to, tools, should bestep-by-step style organizrd around life-application. Pedagogy-andragogy
  10. 10. Orientation to Learning Pedagogy AndragogyProcess for Need to be able toacquiring subject apply whatevermatter, content to knowledge and skillbe used later. they gain soon.Basic subjects. Performance- centered Pedagogy-andragogy
  11. 11. DIMENSIONS OF MATURITY1)Dependence c Autonomy2) Passivity c Activity3) Subjectivity c Objectivity4) Ignorance c Enlightenment5) Small Abilities c Large Abilities6) Few c Many Responsibilities Responsibilities7) Narrow Interests c Broad Interest8) Selfishness c Altruism Pedagogy-andragogy
  12. 12. DIMENSIONS OF MATURITY9) Self-rejection c Self- acceptance10) Amorphous Integrated self- c Self-identity identity11) Focus on c Focus on Particulars Principles12) Superficial Deep Concerns c Concerns13) Imitation c Originality14) Need for c Tolerance of Certainty ambiguity
  13. 13. Definitions of teachingCreation of environment for the best learning to take placeHelping students acquire information, ideas, skills, values, ways of thinking, and means of expressing themselves (Joyce & Weil, 1996).Long-term outcome: students’ increased capabilities to learn more easily and effectively in the futureThus, a major role in teaching is to create powerful learners teaching
  14. 14. Teaching is a combination of both artistry and science (Henderson, 2001). -- teaching as in art, we call this ability creativityHelping students acquire information, ideas, skills, values, ways of thinking, and means of expressing themselves (Joyce & Weil, 1996).Long-term outcome: students’ increased capabilities to learn more easily and effectively in the futureThus, a major role in teaching is to create powerful learners teaching
  15. 15. Definitions of learningProcess of progressive change (Fincher, C. & : ignorance knowledge inability competence indifference understanding Learning is a social process: occurs through interpersonal interaction within a cooperative context (David, Johnson, Johnson, R., & Smith, 1992). relatively permanent change in behavioural potentiality and as a result of reinforced practice teaching
  16. 16. Woolfolk (2004):Learning occurs when experience causes relatively permanent change in an individual’s knowledge or behaviour.Fontana (1995)Learning is a relevantly persistent change in an individual’s potential behaviour due to experiece teaching
  17. 17. Quotations on teaching, learning, educationThe task of the excellent teacher is tostimulate "apparently ordinary" peopleto unusual effort. The tough problem isnot in identifying winners: it is inmaking winners out of ordinary people.K. Patricia Cross teaching
  18. 18. Teaching is the highest form ofunderstandignAristotleGood teaching is one-fourth preparationand three-fourths theatre.Gail GodwinThe educator must above all understand howto wait; to reckon all effects in the light of thefuture, not of the present.Ellen Key, 1911 teaching
  19. 19. No man can be a good teacherunless he has feelings of warmaffection toward his pupils and agenuine desire to impart to themwhat he himself believes to be ofvalue.Bertrand RussellTeaching = helping someone else learnL. Dee Fink teaching
  20. 20. On learning:Memorization is what we resortto when what we are learningmakes no sense.AnonymousIt is what we think we knowalready that often prevents us fromlearning.Claude Bernard teaching
  21. 21. On education:The main hope of a nation lies in the propereducation of its youth.ErasmusAll education springs from some image of the future. If the image of the future held by asociety is grossly inaccurate, its educationsystem will betray its youth.Alvin TofflerEducations purpose is to replace an emptymind with an open one.Malcom S. Forbes teaching
  22. 22. Every act of conscious learning requiresthe willingness to suffer an injury toones self-esteem. That is why youngchildren, before they are aware of theirown self-importance learn so easily; andwhy older persons, especially if vain orimportant, canno’t learn at all.Thomas Szasz, 1973 teaching
  23. 23. Learning StylesLearning styles are important because they are the educational-relevant expressions of the uniqueness of the individual (Joyce & Weil, 1996)Learning styles, also called cognitive styles are students’ preferred ways of learning or processing information (Messick, 1994; Sternbert & Crignorenko, 1997) Learning styles
  24. 24. Four popular learning stylesa. Dunn & Dunnb. Kolb’s theoryc. McCarthy’s 4MAT analysisd. Howard Gardner’s Multiple intelligences Learning styles
  25. 25. Learning by Dunn & Dunn (1987) Students differed in terms of their response to three key dimensions of learning: a. Environment (e.g. Sound, light, temperature) b. Physical stimuli (oral versus written) c. Structure and support (working alone or in groups) Learning styles: Dunn & Dunn
  26. 26. Learning Style DimensionsDimension Learning Style DifferencesEnvironmentSound Is a quiet or nosy environment best for learning?Light Do students prefer bright or subdued light?Temperature Is a warm or cool room preferred?Seating Are individual desks or clusters of desks best for learning?Physical StimuliDuration How does attention span influence the optimal length of activity?Modality Does the student prefer to read or hear new information?Activity Do students learn best when actively involved, or do they prefer more passive roles?Structure / SupportMotivation Do students need external rewards, or are they internally motivated?Monitoring Do students need constant support and monitoring, or are they independent learners?Individual / Group Do students prefer to work alone or in a group?
  27. 27. Implications for teaching : Teachers should treat each student as an inividual human being and not just another face in a class of 30. Help our students understand themselves as learners. Self-awareness can be developed through self-instruction training. Learning styles: Dunn & Dunn
  28. 28. Kolb’s theory : classification oflearners a. Activitists b. Reflectors c. Theorists d. Pragmatists Learning styles: Kolb
  29. 29.  Activisists Like practical work such as labs, field work, observation exercises and using visual source material for information, etc. Reflectors Like to learn by watcing others, by taking time to consider observations of their own experiences, etc Theorists Like lectures, reading papers on topics, considering analogies, etc. Pragmatists Like simulations, case studies, homework, etc. Learning styles: Kolb
  30. 30. Implications : Activists might just start using it and feel their way into it Reflectors might have a go at using it and then take time to think about what they have just done Theorists might begin by reading the manual Pragmatists might start using the programme, but make frequent references to the Help files Learning styles: Kolb
  31. 31. The four types of learning can be seen ascyclical stages through which a learnercan progress (Watch >>> Think >>> Feel>>> Do), as well as categorizing specifickinds of learning experience Learning styles: Kolb
  32. 32. The learning cycle is asfollows:Concrete experience >>> reflective observation >>> abstractconceptualization >>> active experimentation Teachers can build activities to provide pupils with a sequence of activities which allows for this sort of progress Learning styles: 4MAT
  33. 33. McCarthy’s 4MAT analysis This learning style developed the notion of cycle through which leearners progress in a classroom topic or block of work. It made use of the left / right brain science. Learners are classified as: a. Innovative b. Analytical c. Common sense d. Dynamic Learning styles: 4MAT
  34. 34. The most important message teachersshould take from Gardner’s work isthat students are complex,multifaceted individual who need to betreated with sensistivity, and taughtthrough a variety of teaching methods. Learning styles: MI
  35. 35. G a rd n e r’s T h e o ry o f M u ltip l e In te llig e n c e sD im e n s io n E x a m p leL in g u is tic / v e rb a l in te llig e n c e :S e n s itiv it y to th e m e a n in g a n d o rd e r o f w o rd s a n d th e P o e t, jo u rn a lis tva rie d u s e s o f la n g u a g eL o g ic a l-m a th e m a tic a l in te llig e n c e :T h e a b ilit y to h a n d le lo n g c h a in s o f re a s o n in g a n d to S c ie n tis t, m a th e m a tic ia nR e c o g n ize p a tte rn s a n d o rd e r in th e w o rldM u s ic a l in te llig e n c e :S e n s itiv it y to p itc h , m e lo d y, a n d to n e C o m p o s e r, v io lin is tS p a tia l in te llig e n c e :T h e a b ilit y to p e rc e iv e th e v is u a l w o rld a c c u ra te ly, a n d S c u lp to r, n a v ig a to rT o re -c re a te , tra n s fo rm , o r m o d ify a s p e c ts o f th e w o rldB a s e d o n o n e ’s p e rc e p tio n sB o d ily -k in e s th e tic in te ll ig e n c e :A fin e -tu n e d a b ility to u s e th e b o d y a n d to h a n d le o b je c ts D a n c e r, a th le teIn te rp e rs o n a l in te llig e n c e :T h e a b ilit y to n o tic e a n d m a k e d is tin c tio n s a m o n g o th e rs T h e ra p is t, s a le s p e rs o nIn tra p e rs o n a l in te llig e n c e :A c c e s s to o n e ’s o w n “fe e lin g life ” s e lf-a w a re in d ivid u a lN a tu ra lis tic in te llig e n c e :M a k e d is tin c tio n s a n d re c o g n ize p a tte rn s in th e n a tu ra l B io lo g is t, b o ta n is tW o rld : a re c u rio u s a b o u t p la n ts a n d a n im a ls ; a re c o n c e rn e dth e e c o lo g y / e n v iro n m e n tS o u rc e : A d a p te d fro m G a rdn e r, 1 9 9 9 ; G a rd n e r & H a tc h , 1 9 8 9 a n d w w w . h ig h la n d s c h o o l-virtu a lib .o rg .u k