ADE605Theory & Approaches in Art Education Curricular Content Prepared By : Mr. Syamsul Nor Azlan Mohamad
Curricular Content Introduction to Curricular The formal and informal content and process by which learners gain knowledge and understanding, develop skills, and alter attitudes, appreciations, and values under the auspices of school. The planned and guided learning experiences and intended learning outcomes, formulated through the systematic reconstruction of knowledge and experiences, under the auspices of the school, for the learners’ continuous and willful growth in personal social competence. (Daniel Tanner, 1980)
Curricular Content Good Curricular Content Implementing good curricular alignment in your instructional program is important for several reasons. Programs with good curricular alignment are more efficient. Each aspect of the content being taught is directly related to each other and to the instructional goals. This ensures that superfluous content is not included in the curriculum. We (educators) teach certain concepts because we enjoy them the most, not because they are related to our instructional goals.
Curricular Content Good Curricular Content Curricular alignment weeds out any content that does not relate to our goals and could save us much valuable instructional time. Instructional time becomes even more valuable as more states implement testing programs for accountability. Instructional units and whole classes with good curricular alignment are easier for students to follow. Students can figure out how each aspect of the content relates to other aspects and to real world ideas and tasks.
Curricular Content Curriculum Development (Click here) The most frequent quoted theoretical formulation in the field of curriculum has been that published by Ralph Tyler in 1949. Four questions that need to be answered in developing any curriculum and plan of instruction: 1. What are worthwhile educational objectives? 2. What activities will allow us to accomplish these objectives? 3. How should we organize the activities? 4. How will we know if weve accomplished the activities? These questions may be reformulated into four-step process: stating objectives, selecting learning experiences, organizing learning experiences, and evaluating the curriculum.
Curricular Content Curriculum Development The educational objectives originate from three sources: studies of society, studies of learning, and subject-matter specialists. These data systematically collected and analyzed form the basis of initial objectives to be tested for their attainability and their efforts in real curriculum situations. On steps of selection and organization of learning experiences as the means for achieving outcomes, and, finally, evaluating in terms of those learning outcomes. Tyler recognizes a problem in connection with the selection of learning experiences by a teacher or curriculum designer. The problem is that by definition a learning experience is the interaction between a student and her environment.
Curricular Content Curriculum Development The learning experience is based on its function of the perceptions, interests, and previous experiences of the student. Teacher can control the learning experience through the manipulation of the environment, which results in stimulating situations sufficient to evoke the kind of learning outcomes desired. Evaluation is the process of determining to what extent the educational objectives are being realized by the curriculum. Curriculum evaluation is the process of matching initial expectations in the form of behavioral objectives with outcomes achieved by the learner.