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World War I Terms


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World War I Terms

World War I Terms

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  • 1. World War I
  • 2. Tension in Imperial Europe  During Imperial Age, European nations sought power through acquisition of colonies  Countries competed with each other for relative power  They began to get paranoid about their neighbors—If a war broke out, would they be strong enough to survive?  Nations began to look for ways to ensure their security
  • 3. Militarism  Policy of aggressively building up a nation’s armed forces in preparation for war
  • 4. Alliances  Secret treaties or informal understandings between nations that promised they would side together in the event of war
  • 5. Gavrilo Princip  Bosnian-Serb terrorist and nationalist who assassinated Franz Ferdinand
  • 6. Archduke Franz Ferdinand  Heir to the Austria- Hungarian throne. His assassination was the spark that ignited the war.
  • 7. Brinksmanship  A strategy where a country seeks an advantage by creating the impression that they are willing and able to push a situation to the point of war in order to get their demands
  • 8. Mobilization  The readying of troops for war
  • 9. Ultimatum  A statement, especially in diplomatic negotiations, that expresses or implies the threat of serious penalties if the terms are not accepted
  • 10. Road to war
  • 11. Kaiser Wilhelm II  German leader during World War I. He declared war on Russia and invaded France.
  • 12. Allied Forces  The group of nations that opposed the Central Powers; originally consisting of Great Britain, France and Russia and later joined by the U.S., Italy and others
  • 13. Central Powers  The group of nations--led by Germany, Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire--that opposed the Allied Forces
  • 14. Military Alliances before the war
  • 15. Schlieffen Plan  German plan of attack to avoid a 2- front war: first quickly take out France, then focus troops on Russia
  • 16. “Rape of Belgium”  German war crimes committed during the march through neutral Belgium on the way to Paris
  • 17. Race for the Sea  Early in the war when both sides tried to outflank each other; resulted in a front line of trenches over 200 miles long
  • 18. Trench warfare  A form of warfare where opponents occupy static (non-moving) fighting lines, especially fortified trenches in the ground.
  • 19. No Man’s Land  Area between the two opposing lines of trenches
  • 20. Barbed wire  Formed a barrier to attacking soldiers attempting to cross no man's land
  • 21. Mustard gas  First used by Germans in 1917; one of several poison gases used during the war
  • 22. Machine Guns
  • 23. Tanks
  • 24. Aircraft
  • 25. Manfred von Richthofen  a.k.a. The "Red Baron," a German fighter pilot who shot down 80 enemy planes and commanded the Flying Circus
  • 26. Stalemate  A situation in which neither side can gain the advantage
  • 27. Shell shock  Battle fatigue; a range of behaviors brought on by exposure to combat and acute psychological stress The “Thousand- yard stare” --
  • 28. Total war  The organization of entire societies for war in a social, economic, and even spiritual sense.
  • 29. War of attrition  A war that is won by slowly wearing down the enemy through prolonged casualties and loss of resources
  • 30. Woodrow Wilson  U.S. President during World War I
  • 31. Isolationism  Foreign policy of neutrality and non- involvement  Wilson made a declaration of neutrality just days into the war
  • 32. Blockade  An effort to cut off food, supplies, war material or communications from a particular area by force  England used their powerful navy to cut off Germany  Some estimate 750,000 Germans died of starvation
  • 33. U.S. Exports •After war began, U.S. traded even more with Allies •U.S. economy boomed from supplying Allies with war materials and extending credit
  • 34. U-boat  German submarine (Unterseeboot)  Germany began targeting merchant ships
  • 35. Lusitania  British passenger ship sunk off coast of Ireland by German submarine; 128 Americans dead, led to U.S. outrage
  • 36. American Reaction  Wilson issues warning to Germany  He affirms Britain’s right to blockade Germany but demands Germany stop attacks on ships  Secretary of State, William Jennings Bryan, resigned in protest of U.S. non-neutrality
  • 37. Germany Resumes Attacks  At breaking point from blockade  Germany makes calculated tactical decision  Declares they will attack without warning after all  Figure they can win war with unrestricted submarine warfare before the U.S. could enter
  • 38. Zimmerman Telegram  Telegram intercepted by British intelligence  German ambassador asks Mexico to enter the war on the German side  In return Germany promises to help them recover territory they lost in the Mexican War  Last straw for Wilson
  • 39. Autocrat  A ruler with unlimited power  Russian Revolution ends their autocracy  Makes it easier for U.S. to justify war “to make the world safe for democracy”  Russia out of war, leaving France and Britain vulnerable  Wilson declares war on April 6, 1917
  • 40. American Expeditionary Force  American forces sent to Europe
  • 41. Harlem Hellfighters  369th (Colored) Infantry Regiment integrated into the French Army  Received France's highest combat medal
  • 42. Selective Service Act of 1917  Act that authorized the draft  Draft began almost immediately
  • 43. Espionage Act of 1917  Made it illegal to oppose the draft
  • 44. Sedition  Speech or actions meant to incite rebellion against a government
  • 45. Sedition Act of 1918  Made it illegal to obstruct the sale of Liberty Bonds or to discuss anything "disloyal" to the U.S. government
  • 46. Charles Schenck  Anti-war activist who was arrested for distributing pamphlets urging men to avoid the draft.
  • 47. Schenck v. United States  Established restrictions of freedom of speech in cases of "clear and present danger" Oliver Wendell Holmes
  • 48. Propaganda  Committee on Public Information aimed to unite public opinion  Published over 75 million pieces of printed material  Encouraged journalists to use “self- censorship”
  • 49. "Four Minute Men"  75,000 volunteers recruited by the Committee on Public Information  Gave 4-minute speeches in support of the war effort  Helped turn public opinion
  • 50. Shaping the economy for war  War Industries Board coordinated production of military supplies  National War Labor Board pressured industries to grant workers concessions in return for not striking  Other “War Boards” for railroads, fuel, food, etc.
  • 51. Liberty bonds  Bonds sold to promote the war effort; heavily-promoted by the government
  • 52. Help from the Homefront  $23 billion by 1920  Victory gardens  Meatless Tuesdays and Wheatless Wednesdays  Production of alcohol restricted to conserve grain
  • 53. Women on the Homefront  Shortage of male labor led to women being hired to do work traditionally done by men
  • 54. Workers were especially needed to produce war supplies
  • 55. Great Migration  Massive numbers of African- Americans also migrated North for jobs previously closed to them  500,000 by 1920
  • 56. Anti-German Sentiment  German names changed  “Liberty sandwich,” “Liberty cabbage”  Hot dog
  • 57. Armistice  Cease-fire  November 11, 1918
  • 58. Fourteen Points  President Woodrow Wilson drafted 14-point plan for peace in 1918  First presented to joint session of Congress before war to justify entry in moral terms  Later presented at Versailles peace conference after the war, but failed to win approval of all 14 points into final treaty  Wilson advocated “Peace without victory”
  • 59. Main Points  No secret alliances  Freedom of the seas  Removal of trade barriers (tariffs, etc.)  Reduce military to just what’s necessary to protect your own country  Let go of some colonies  Create a League of Nations
  • 60. Treaty of Versailles  Treaty that ended the war  June 28, 1919
  • 61. Big Four  Countries at the table: *U.S. *Italy *France *Great Britain  Germany and Russia excluded
  • 62. Reparations  Payments from an enemy for economic costs of war
  • 63. Terms of the Treaty  Germany humiliated: --Charged with war crimes --Forced to accept guilt for the war --Must drastically reduce military --Allow France to occupy the Rhineland for 15 years --Give up territory --Pay reparations  France wanted revenge and security against any future German threat
  • 64. League of Nations  International body proposed by Woodrow Wilson to ensure peace and stability after the war through cooperation and accountability
  • 65. Ratification  Congressional approval of a bill  Wilson tours country making speeches
  • 66. Failure to Ratify  Congress fails to ratify  League is weak without U.S.  Wilson collapses from stroke
  • 67. Irreconcilables  Would not accept U.S. membership in the League of Nations, no matter what
  • 68. Reservationists  Would accept the League of Nations with reservations Henry Cabot Lodge
  • 69. Dulce Et Decorum Est  Poem written by British poet and solider Wilfred Owen, famous for its horrific imagery of war  Owen died in battle shortly before the armistice