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  • 1. World War I
  • 2. Tension in Imperial Europe
    • During Imperial Age, European nations sought power through acquisition of colonies
    • Countries competed with each other for relative power
    • They began to get paranoid about their neighbors—If a war broke out, would they be strong enough to survive?
    • Nations began to look for ways to ensure their security
  • 3. Militarism
    • Policy of aggressively building up a nation’s armed forces in preparation for war
  • 4. Alliances
    • Secret treaties or informal understandings between nations that promised they would side together in the event of war
  • 5.  
  • 6. Gavrilo Princip
    • Bosnian-Serb terrorist and nationalist who assassinated Franz Ferdinand
  • 7. Archduke Franz Ferdinand
    • Heir to the Austria-Hungarian throne. His assassination was the spark that ignited the war.
  • 8. Brinksmanship
    • A strategy where a country seeks an advantage by creating the impression that they are willing and able to push a situation to the point of war in order to get their demands
  • 9. Mobilization
    • The readying of troops for war
  • 10. Ultimatum
    • A statement, especially in diplomatic negotiations, that expresses or implies the threat of serious penalties if the terms are not accepted
  • 11. Road to war
  • 12. Kaiser Wilhelm II
    • German leader during World War I. He declared war on Russia and invaded France.
  • 13. Allied Forces
    • The group of nations that opposed the Central Powers; originally consisting of Great Britain, France and Russia and later joined by the U.S., Italy and others
  • 14. Central Powers
    • The group of nations--led by Germany, Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire--that opposed the Allied Forces
  • 15. Military Alliances before the war
  • 16. Schlieffen Plan
    • German plan of attack to avoid a 2-front war: first quickly take out France, then focus troops on Russia
  • 17.  
  • 18. “ Rape of Belgium”
    • German war crimes committed during the march through neutral Belgium on the way to Paris
  • 19. Race for the Sea
    • Early in the war when both sides tried to outflank each other; resulted in a front line of trenches over 200 miles long
  • 20.  
  • 21. Trench warfare
    • A form of warfare where opponents occupy static (non-moving) fighting lines, especially fortified trenches in the ground.
  • 22.  
  • 23.  
  • 24.  
  • 25.  
  • 26. No Man’s Land
    • Area between the two opposing lines of trenches
  • 27. Barbed wire
    • Formed a barrier to attacking soldiers attempting to cross no man's land
  • 28. Mustard gas
    • First used by Germans in 1917; one of several poison gases used during the war
  • 29.  
  • 30. Machine Guns
  • 31. Tanks
  • 32. Aircraft
  • 33. Manfred von Richthofen
    • a.k.a. The "Red Baron," a German fighter pilot who shot down 80 enemy planes and commanded the Flying Circus
  • 34. Stalemate
    • A situation in which neither side can gain the advantage
  • 35. Shell shock
    • Battle fatigue; a range of behaviors brought on by exposure to combat and acute psychological stress
    The “Thousand-yard stare” -- 
  • 36. Total war
    • The organization of entire societies for war in a social, economic, and even spiritual sense.
  • 37. War of attrition
    • A war that is won by slowly wearing down the enemy through prolonged casualties and loss of resources
  • 38.  
  • 39. Woodrow Wilson
    • U.S. President during World War I
  • 40. Isolationism
    • Foreign policy of neutrality and non-involvement
    • Wilson made a declaration of neutrality just days into the war
  • 41. Blockade
    • An effort to cut off food, supplies, war material or communications from a particular area by force
    • England used their powerful navy to cut off Germany
    • Some estimate 750,000 Germans died of starvation
  • 42.  
  • 43. U.S. Exports
    • After war began, U.S. traded even more with Allies
    • U.S. economy boomed from supplying Allies with war materials and extending credit
  • 44.  
  • 45. U-boat
    • German submarine (Unterseeboot)
    • Germany began targeting merchant ships
  • 46. Lusitania
    • British passenger ship sunk off coast of Ireland by German submarine; 128 Americans dead, led to U.S. outrage
  • 47. American Reaction
    • Wilson issues warning to Germany
    • He affirms Britain’s right to blockade Germany but demands Germany stop attacks on ships
    • Secretary of State, William Jennings Bryan, resigned in protest of U.S. non-neutrality
  • 48.  
  • 49. Germany Resumes Attacks
    • At breaking point from blockade
    • Germany makes calculated tactical decision
    • Declares they will attack without warning after all
    • Figure they can win war with unrestricted submarine warfare before the U.S. could enter
  • 50.  
  • 51. Zimmerman Telegram
    • Telegram intercepted by British intelligence
    • German ambassador asks Mexico to enter the war on the German side
    • In return Germany promises to help them recover territory they lost in the Mexican War
    • Last straw for Wilson
  • 52. Autocrat
    • A ruler with unlimited power
    • Russian Revolution ends their autocracy
    • Makes it easier for U.S. to justify war “to make the world safe for democracy”
    • Russia out of war, leaving France and Britain vulnerable
    • Wilson declares war on April 6, 1917
  • 53. American Expeditionary Force
    • American forces sent to Europe
  • 54. Harlem Hellfighters
    • 369th (Colored) Infantry Regiment integrated into the French Army
    • Received France's highest combat medal
  • 55. Selective Service Act of 1917
    • Act that authorized the draft
    • Draft began almost immediately
  • 56. Espionage Act of 1917
    • Made it illegal to oppose the draft
  • 57. Sedition
    • Speech or actions meant to incite rebellion against a government
  • 58. Sedition Act of 1918
    • Made it illegal to obstruct the sale of Liberty Bonds or to discuss anything "disloyal" to the U.S. government
  • 59. Charles Schenck
    • Anti-war activist who was arrested for distributing pamphlets urging men to avoid the draft.
  • 60. Schenck v. United States
    • Established restrictions of freedom of speech in cases of "clear and present danger"
    Oliver Wendell Holmes
  • 61. Propaganda
    • Committee on Public Information aimed to unite public opinion
    • Published over 75 million pieces of printed material
    • Encouraged journalists to use “self-censorship”
  • 62. "Four Minute Men"
    • 75,000 volunteers recruited by the Committee on Public Information
    • Gave 4-minute speeches in support of the war effort
    • Helped turn public opinion
  • 63. Shaping the economy for war
    • War Industries Board coordinated production of military supplies
    • National War Labor Board pressured industries to grant workers concessions in return for not striking
    • Other “War Boards” for railroads, fuel, food, etc.
  • 64. Liberty bonds
    • Bonds sold to promote the war effort; heavily-promoted by the government
  • 65. Help from the Homefront
    • $23 billion by 1920
    • Victory gardens
    • Meatless Tuesdays and Wheatless Wednesdays
    • Production of alcohol restricted to conserve grain
  • 66. Women on the Homefront
    • Shortage of male labor led to women being hired to do work traditionally done by men
  • 67. Workers were especially needed to produce war supplies
  • 68.  
  • 69. Great Migration
    • Massive numbers of African-Americans also migrated North for jobs previously closed to them
    • 500,000 by 1920
  • 70.  
  • 71. Anti-German Sentiment
    • German names changed
    • “ Liberty sandwich,” “Liberty cabbage”
    • Hot dog
  • 72. Armistice
    • Cease-fire
    • November 11, 1918
  • 73. Fourteen Points
    • President Woodrow Wilson drafted 14-point plan for peace in 1918
    • First presented to joint session of Congress before war to justify entry in moral terms
    • Later presented at Versailles peace conference after the war, but failed to win approval of all 14 points into final treaty
    • Wilson advocated “Peace without victory”
  • 74. Main Points
    • No secret alliances
    • Freedom of the seas
    • Removal of trade barriers (tariffs, etc.)
    • Reduce military to just what’s necessary to protect your own country
    • Let go of some colonies
    • Create a League of Nations
  • 75. Treaty of Versailles
    • Treaty that ended the war
    • June 28, 1919
  • 76. Big Four
    • Countries at the table: *U.S. *Italy *France *Great Britain
    • Germany and Russia excluded
  • 77. Reparations
    • Payments from an enemy for economic costs of war
  • 78. Terms of the Treaty
    • Germany humiliated: --Charged with war crimes --Forced to accept guilt for the war --Must drastically reduce military --Allow France to occupy the Rhineland for 15 years --Give up territory --Pay reparations
    • France wanted revenge and security against any future German threat
  • 79. League of Nations
    • International body proposed by Woodrow Wilson to ensure peace and stability after the war through cooperation and accountability
  • 80. Ratification
    • Congressional approval of a bill
    • Wilson tours country making speeches
  • 81. Failure to Ratify
    • Congress fails to ratify
    • League is weak without U.S.
    • Wilson collapses from stroke
  • 82. Irreconcilables
    • Would not accept U.S. membership in the League of Nations, no matter what
  • 83. Reservationists
    • Would accept the League of Nations with reservations
    Henry Cabot Lodge
  • 84. Dulce Et Decorum Est
    • Poem written by British poet and solider Wilfred Owen, famous for its horrific imagery of war
    • Owen died in battle shortly before the armistice
  • 85.