Revolutionary notes

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Revolutionary notes

  1. 1. Women and the Revolutionary War
  2. 2. <ul><li>Women and the Emerging Crisis </li></ul><ul><li>NA and AA Women take sides </li></ul><ul><li>White Women </li></ul><ul><li>Service </li></ul><ul><li>NA and AA post-war </li></ul><ul><li>White Women </li></ul><ul><li>Women and Religion </li></ul><ul><li>Notable Women </li></ul>
  3. 3. I. Women and the Emerging Crisis <ul><li>Involved as consumers and producers with taxes imposed by the British </li></ul><ul><li>Spinning bees for manufacturing the yarn for homemade cloth </li></ul><ul><li>AA women participated in spinning </li></ul><ul><li>Women=Liberty Daughters </li></ul><ul><li>NO British tea </li></ul>
  4. 4. II. NA and AA Women Take Sides <ul><li>NA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>13,000 fought for the British </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Split Iroquois confederacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many tribes women decided when to war </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remember these same Colonist had taken much of their land </li></ul></ul><ul><li>B. AA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>British promised many of them freedom if they joined loyalist </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><ul><li>British formed “Company of Black Pioneers” that consisted of 72 men, 15 women, and 8 kids </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. III. White Women <ul><li>Quaker women were pacifist </li></ul><ul><li>Assumed that whatever their husband was on was the side they supported </li></ul><ul><li>Some became spies </li></ul>
  7. 7. IV. Service <ul><li>A. Few fought in combat </li></ul><ul><li>Some cross-dressed </li></ul><ul><li>Some traveled with their husbands </li></ul><ul><li>Nurses </li></ul><ul><li>Prostitutes </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>“ Not a woman belonging to the army is to been seen with troops on their march”-GW </li></ul><ul><li>“ that most male of institutions, the military”-historian </li></ul>
  9. 9. V. Post War NA and AA <ul><li>NA are hard to gauge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Changing gender roles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women lost a lot of influence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>B. AA Women </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many received freedom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>42.3% that left NY were women with their kids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quakers anti-slave </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many northern states AA gained freedom at 28 </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><ul><li>Networks of black institutions such as churches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slaves that were pregnant worked deep into their pregnancies </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. VI. White Women <ul><li>Mixed results </li></ul><ul><li>Shopkeepers, teachers, innkeepers, servants, seamstresses </li></ul><ul><li>“ Remember the ladies” </li></ul><ul><li>No votes </li></ul><ul><li>Improved education </li></ul>
  12. 12. VII. Women and Religion <ul><li>The Great Awakening </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crucial for women </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New egalitarian with an appeal that cut across gender, class, race, and slave status </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More women than me in churches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be set for eternity with risks in child bearings </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>B. Jemina Wilkinson </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Said she was the female incarnation of Christ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>C. Mother Ann Lee </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preacher and prophet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dressed like a male </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No sex </li></ul></ul><ul><li>D. Deacons and Elders </li></ul><ul><li>E. Traveling preachers </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>F. AA Women </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some brought Islam over from Africa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Few churches condemned slavery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t follow master’s religion </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. VIII. Famous Women <ul><li>Martha Washington </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Born on June 2, 1731 in Virginia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many opportunities growing up </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Married Daniel Parke Custis (very wealthy) at 18 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4 kids, 2 died in infancy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Custis died at 46 leaving no will </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fell in love with GW (8 months younger than her) </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><ul><li>Lived at Mt. Vernon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>She joined him at Valley Forge in 1778 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beginning in 1789, she became the first first lady </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lasted until 1797 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GW died on Dec 14, 1799, causing Martha to shut herself off from the rest of the world </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Freed all her slaves in 1800 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May 22, 1802, shed died </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>B. Sally Hemming </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mixed-race slave of Thomas Jefferson </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Said to be the half sister of Jefferson’s wife, Martha Skelton </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jefferson supposedly fathered children of Sally </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mixed belief throughout history </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1998 DNA tests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Duties included being a nursemaid-companion </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><ul><li>No known images or writings from her </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Children were light-skinned </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Descendants of Sally, have told stories how they descended from Jefferson </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Historians believe that we should take the evidence that’s there and come up with our own conclusion </li></ul></ul>

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