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1920’s unit review for essential questions

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    1920’s unit review for essential questions 1920’s unit review for essential questions Presentation Transcript

    • 1920’S UNIT REVIEW: ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS
    • The Automobile Culture: 1. How did the Model T revolutionize the American economy?
    • Ford River Rouge Complex  Massive production facility cut costs  Mastered assembly line process  Copied by other manufacturers  Lower costs led to low prices for consumer goods  Consumption skyrockets
    • Buying on Credit  Installment plan: A system that lets customers make partial payments (installments) over a period of time until the total debt is paid  Consumers buy things on credit they otherwise wouldn‘t buy
    • The Automobile Culture: 2. What is a consumer culture and why did it develop in the 1920s?
    • Rise of a Consumer Economy  Consumer economy: An economy that depends on a large amount of buying by consumers— individuals who use (or ―consume‖) products
    • The Automobile Culture: 3. How did the automobile revolutionize American culture?
    •  By 1929, most middle-class Americans in cities or towns would most likely own: --Car --Washing machine --Radio --Refrigerator --Other small appliances
    • Things That Led to More Independence  25% women worked outside the home  Automobiles  New social values  Voting rights  Freud: New ideas about sexuality (It‘s normal and healthy)
    • The Automobile Culture: 4. How did the automobile change living patterns?
    • Ford Model-T  Most popular car in America in the first three decades of the 20th century  $1000 when introduced in 1908  Model T's cost fell every year  Less than $300 in 1927
    • Result:  1920: One car for ever 15 people  1929: One car for ever 5 people
    • Popular culture; radio; jazz; heroes of the 20s: 1. Why did a national culture develop in the 1920s? 2. What impact did the radio have on popular culture?
    • Mass Media Creates a National Culture  Chain stores, branch banking, national brands, etc.
    •  Seeing same movies, listening to same radio shows  Creates common ground that breaks down ethnic boundaries in America's cities  What does that today?
    • Mass Media  National Radio Shows  Hollywood Movies  National celebrities
    • Popular culture; radio; jazz; heroes of the 20s: 3. How did trends in fashion and music reflect the spirit of the times?
    • After WWI  Americans wanted to rejoice and redefine themselves  Rejected the past  Led to new lifestyles and social values
    • Life of a Flapper •Wild partying •Smoked cigarettes and drank alcohol –unheard of if you were a woman! •Lived reckless lives and clung to youth •Flappers were the first of the women to flaunt their sexuality •Their lifestyles were shown in the way that they dressed and danced
    • The Flapper Look •Wore heavy make up •Clothes: a dress just below the knee, stockings, heels no corset •The look was influenced by Coco Chanel •Gender bending—tightly wrap their chest to flatten it •The ―Tube‖—Lower hipline and straight from shoulders to hem
    • THE JAZZ AGE  The era from right after WWI until the stock market crash in 1929, during which jazz increased in popularity. It was a reaction to the hardship of the war and was characterized by prosperity, extravagance and self-indulgent behavior
    • Popular culture; radio; jazz; heroes of the 20s: 4. Who were the most popular heroes of this time? Why did hero worship become popular?
    • Rise of the National Celebrity  Hero worship: Intense or excessive admiration for a hero or a person regarded as a hero; seen widely in the 1920‘s
    • Babe Ruth  Baseball hero of 1920‘s pop culture  Helped popularity of baseball to explode  714 career home runs and 2,814 hits
    • Charles Lindberg: Celebrity Pilot  First non-stop flight across the Atlantic in 1927
    •  Seeing same movies, listening to same radio shows  Creates common ground that breaks down ethnic boundaries in America's cities  What does that today?
    • Organized crime; Cultural backlash; Scopes Trial: 1. Why did Prohibition lead to organized crime?
    • Underground Market Booms  Estimated income of bootleg liquor industry in 1929: $3 billion  Entire United States federal budget in 1929: $2.9 billion18
    • Rise of Organized Crime • Prohibition created huge consumer market unmet by legitimate means • Meant that criminals ran the market • Criminals get rich • In 1927 Al Capone makes $60 million • Organized crime gains power in cities • Increases lawlessness Al Capone
    • Organized crime; Cultural backlash; Scopes Trial: 2. How did organized crime affect the American way of life?
    • Weakened Law Enforcement  Leads to public contempt for police  Organized crime leaders, bootleggers and speakeasies pay bribes to cops  In 1927, Al Capone had half of Chicago‘s police on his payroll
    • Organized crime; Cultural backlash; Scopes Trial: 3. What is the connection between the religious revival of the 1920s and the Scopes Trial?
    • Clash of Cultures  Opening statements pictured the trial as a titanic struggle between good and evil or truth and ignorance.  Bryan claimed that ―If evolution wins, Christianity goes." Darrow argued, "Scopes isn't on trial; civilization is on trial." Vs.
    • Showdown: Modernists v. Traditionalists  In response to new social patterns of modernism, a wave of revivalism developed  Trial emerged as a conflict between social and intellectual values  Journalists looking for a showdown—who would dominate American culture? Traditionalists or modernists? OR
    • Organized crime; Cultural backlash; Scopes Trial: 4. Why did the Scopes trial become the ―trial of the century‖?
    • Clash of the Titans  Case argued by the two most famous figures possible: a showdown of rivals  Darrow represented modernity  Bryan represented tradition
    • Showdown: Modernists v. Traditionalists  In response to new social patterns of modernism, a wave of revivalism developed  Trial emerged as a conflict between social and intellectual values  Journalists looking for a showdown—who would dominate American culture? Traditionalists or modernists? OR
    • Harlem Renaissance: 1. What was the connection between the Great Migration and the Harlem Renaissance?
    • Title 1920 1911 1930
    • Harlem Renaissance: 2. What was unique about the artists‘ message? 3. How did this movement affect American pop culture and perceptions of African-Americans?
    • Music: Jazz • Began with African-American musicians in New Orleans and transported North during Great Migration • Blended blues and ragtime with improvisation and syncopated rhythms to produce totally new sound • Has been called the single greatest contribution Americans have made to world culture • Jazz influenced all American popular music that came after it
    • Literature  At the same time, African- American authors were giving their own voice to the experience of being black in America  Plays depicting African- Americans with complex emotions are put on stage (challenged minstrel images)
    • Harlem Renaissance: 4. Who were the major figures of the Harlem Renaissance?
    • LANGSTON HUGHES  Poet, playwright and novelist  His first collection of poems: I, Too, Sing America (1925)
    • ZORA NEALE HURSTON  Novelist, short story writer, folklorist and anthropologist  Novel: Their Eyes Were Watching God  Major influence on Ralph Ellison, Toni Morrison and Alice Walker
    • INTELLECTUALS: MARCUS GARVEY  Became convinced uniting blacks only way to improve their condition  Founded the United Negro Improvement Association in 1914 to unite blacks  Back-to-Africa movement  Goal to form their own country  Black Star Line: fleet of ships used by the UNIA
    • Red Scare and the Palmer Raids; Immigration reform: 1. What made Americans ―afraid‖ of radical ideas?
    • Russian Revolution  Czar Nicholas II is unpopular due to WWI and high casualties  Forced to give up power  Leads to a communist revolution in 1917
    • Labor Strikes Make U.S. Leaders Nervous  1919: A wave of labor strikes sweeps nation after Armistice  Boston Police Strike  Steel and Coal Strikes
    • Strikes Broken Up By Force  Nervous business owners fear Communists have infiltrated their workers  In reality, cost of living is twice what it was before the war
    • Red Scare and the Palmer Raids; Immigration reform: 2. What actions did the federal government take against suspected radicals?
    • Palmer Raids  A campaign of raids to identify and root out groups whose activities posed a "clear and present danger" to the country, such as communists, socialists and anarchists
    • Red Scare and the Palmer Raids; Immigration reform: 3. How did this change immigration to the US?
    • Quota  Numerical limit on immigrants from each foreign nation  Quotas set low for Eastern and Southern Europe  Asian immigration banned
    • Red Scare and the Palmer Raids; Immigration reform: 4. What were the long term effects of the Red Scare?
    • Red Scare  An intense fear of communism and other ideas considered extreme
    • New Immigration Laws •1921 Emergency Quota Act: Sets quota for each country to the # of people from that country living in the U.S. in 1910 •1924 Immigration Act: Sets quota for each country to the # of people from that country living in the U.S. in 1890 •Reduces immigration of ―New Immigrants‖ by 97%
    • The Great Migration; Rise of the KKK: 1. What caused African-Americans to move from the South?
    • Push Factors: Why to Get Out of the South  Jim Crow laws  Lynching and KKK  Flood  Boll Weevil infestation
    • The Great Migration; Rise of the KKK: 2. Why did conditions in the North appealed to African-Americans?
    • Pull Factors: Why to Head North  Jobs  NAACP  Leaders like W.E.B. Du Bois and Booker T. Washington inspire people
    • The Great Migration; Rise of the KKK: 3. What impact did the Great Migration have on American racial relations?
    • Racial Conflict  African-Americans face anger and hatred from whites  Whites fear job competition  Black women often domestics in white households for low wages
    • The Great Migration; Rise of the KKK: 4. Why did the Ku Klux Klan experience a revival in the 1920‘s and how was it different than the KKK of the past?
    • Some Factors That Lead to Rise of KKK
    • Film: Birth of a Nation •1915 silent film glorifying the KKK during the Civil War era •Highest-grossing film of the silent era •Remained highest- grossing film for 22 years •Helps to revive the KKK, which had mostly died out in the 1870‘s
    • Presidents of the 1920s; Economic Boom: 1. How did Harding and Coolidge reflect the laissez-faire theory? 3. Why was the 1920‘s a ―great time to be rich‖?
    • Warren G. Harding, (R) 1921-1923  Elected on campaign of ―a return to normalcy‖  Considered by some historians to be worst president in history  Hostile to government regulations from Progressive era  Staffs regulatory agencies with officials from the industries meant to be regulated  Many regulators are philosophically opposed to government regulation and deeply corrupt Worst President Ever
    • A Great Time to Be Rich  Treasury Secretary Andrew Mellon lowers income tax rates for wealthiest Americans from 73% to just 25%  Investors enjoy one of the greatest periods of market growth in U.S. history  The Dow Jones Industrial Average peaks in 1929 at more than six times its value in 1921  Less than 1% of U.S. population owns stock, so directly benefits only the wealthy
    • Presidents of the 1920s; Economic Boom: 2. How did the Teapot Dome scandal affect the American Presidency?
    • Teapot Dome Scandal  Harding‘s Secretary of the Interior, Albert B. Fall, gives away oil drilling rights on federal land for $300,000 in bribes  Fall later goes to jail  The worst of several scandals in Harding‘s administration  Harding dies before full extent of scandal comes to light
    • Calvin Coolidge (R), 1923-1929 Show  Harding's replacement me the money  Also an economic conservative  Reputation for respectability  Most famous for saying "the business of America is business‖  ‗Coolidge Prosperity‘ defines the 20s: Robust economic growth and widespread affluence Known as ―Silent Cal‖
    • Presidents of the 1920s; Economic Boom: 4. Why was the wealth and economic success of the 1920‘s not felt by farmers?
    • A Terrible Time to Be a Farmer  Collapse of agricultural prices in 1920  Poverty, crushing debt and foreclosures  During WWI U.S. farmers benefit from high demand and high prices throughout the world  Many European farmers can‘t produce during war, which drives up prices
    • Farmers Left Behind  From 1920 to 1921, farm prices fall at catastrophic rate  Price of wheat falls by ½  Price of cotton falls by ¾  Farmers suddenly can‘t make payments  Rural wealth falls far behind urban wealth  More than 90% of U.S. farms still lack power into the 1930‘s  Rural access to telephones actually falls during the 20‘s