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Systems On Earth
 

Systems On Earth

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    Systems On Earth Systems On Earth Presentation Transcript

    • Systems on Earth
      System:
      A group of interacting, interrelated, or interdependent elements forming a complex whole.
      Synergy:
      The interaction of two or more agents or forces so that their combined effect is greater than the sum of their individual effects.
      System > Sum of its Parts
    • Cells
      Tissues
      Organs
      Organ Systems
      Individuals
      Populations
      Communities
      Ecosystems
      Systems on Earth
    • The Gaia Hypothesis
      James Lovelock
      Independent scientist
      Earth made of different functioning units that interact with each other
      Changed focus of environmental movement
    • Systems
      All systems have
      Inputs
      Outputs
      Processes
    • Scale of Systems
    • Types of Systems
      Open
      Closed
      Isolated
    • Open System
      Exchange of matter and energy
    • Closed System
      Exchange of energy only.
    • Isolated System
      No exchange of energy or matter
      Do not exist naturally
      Possibly the universe?
    • Energy
      Energy in all types of systems follows the laws of thermodynamics.
      Energy is released in the form of light and heat.
      Energy can be “stored” in the bonds or organic molecules.
    • 1st Law of Thermodynamics
      Law of Conservation of Energy
      Energy can neither be created nor destroyed.
      Energy can only change forms.
      Cells cannot produce energy – they burn sugars to produce
      ATP (respiration).
      Plant cells convert
      the sun’s energy to
      sugar, which they
      burn for energy.
    • 2nd Law of Thermodynamics
      Energy flows from high quality to low quality.
      Energy is lost during every conversion between forms
      Energy = Work + Heat
      As systems lose energy they become more disorganized – more entropy
      The sun supplies constant,
      high quality energy
    • Life and the 2nd Law
      Life is a struggle against entropy.
      Organization takes energy!
    • ENERGY
      is the foundation
      of all ecosystems
    • Equilibrium
      Ecosystems are open systems
      Open systems tend to exist in a state of balance, or equilibrium
      Static equilibrium
      Components of the system stay unchanged
      Ex: makeup of Earth’s crust
      Dynamic equilibrium
      The system is unstable on the short term
      Stays unchanged over the long term
    • Regulation of Systems
      Systems are managed by feedback loops
      Positive feedback system
      Cause change in the same direction as the system
    • Regulation of Systems
      Negative feedback systems
      Cause change in the opposite direction from the original system
      Like a furnace/
      thermostat in
      your house
    • Processes Within Ecosystems
      Both materials and energy move through ecosystems
      Materials can be recycled
      Energy cannot
    • Two Types of Processes
      Transfers
      Require little energy
      Change in location of material or energy
      Examples
      Movement of materials when one organism eats another
      Movement of water through runoff
      Heat energy moving in ocean currents, air masses
    • Two Types of Processes
      Transformations
      Change in form of the energy or materials
      Requires more energy
      Examples:
      Conversion of energy from glucose to ATP during respiration
      Conversion of sun’s energy from light to organic molecules during photosynthesis
      Evaporation or condensation of water
      Burning of fossil fuels
    • Diagramming Systems
      Storage
      Parts of a system where energy or materials accumulate
      Drawn as a box (think engine in a box)
      Flows
      Inputs – movement into the storage
      Outputs – movement out of the storage
      Can be transfers or transformations
    • Diagramming Systems
      Storage
      INPUT
      OUTPUT
    • Systems Diagram: Energy in an Ecosystem