Lesson One: Geography of South AsiaI. Subcontinent a. a large region separated from the rest of the continent by natural features b. The region is called a subcontinent because it is so large and separated by water from other land areas.
II. Plate Tectonics a. According to the theory called plate tectonics, the Earth’s surface is made of several slowly moving plates. b. The movement of the plates may cause changes such as the development of mountain ranges, basins, and bodies of water.
II. Plate Tectonics -continued- i. The subcontinent of South Asia may have formed when a plate broke off a large landmass and moved northward. ii. This smaller plate may have collided with a larger plate that contained Europe and Asia, pushed up under the larger plate and then formed mountains.
III. Himalayas a. South Asia is home to the world’s tallest mountains, the Himalayas. b. The Himalayas were formed when the smaller plate pushed up under the larger plate. c. The Himalayas are still rising. d. Mount Everest is its highest peak.
IV. South Asia Landforms a. Eight Countries make up South Asia: i. India ii. Pakistan iii. Nepal iv. Bhutan v. Afghanistan vi. Bangladesh vii. Sri Lanka viii. Maldives Islands
IV. South Asia Landforms cont.b. These countries havedifferent landforms.c. The Hindu Kushmountains are in thenorthwest and theHimalayas are in thenortheast.d. These mountain rangesseparate South Asia fromthe rest of the continent.
IV. South Asia Landforms cont. e. Pakistan is home to the world’s second tallest mountain, the K2. f. In the south is India, which makes up three- fourths of the subcontinent. g. South of the Himalayas, the land is a lush, green plain. h. In the middle and toward the tip of India, the land is a dry plateau.
V. Seasons a. There are three seasons in South Asia. b. Temperatures are mild to cool from October through February. c. Temperatures are very hot from March through May. d. Monsoon season, or the rainy season, is from June through September.
VI. Monsoon Season a. Monsoon season, or the rainy season, is from June through September. b. Nearly all of the yearly precipitation, or rain and snowfall, falls during the monsoon season. c. After the monsoon season, the land is refreshed and full of life again (fertile). d. The monsoon season is very important to farmers, who depend on the rains for their crops. e. The region’s economy is closely tied to the monsoon season.
VII. Rivers a. Three great rivers flow through the subcontinent: the Indus, Ganges, and Brahmaputra. b. The rivers fan out across a flat plain called the Indo-Ganges Plain. c. Monsoon season rains cause flooding, which spreads out more silt to the fields.
VIII. Subsistence farming a. Def.: When many families grow food just for themselves; they live on the food they grow and they do not sell much of their crops. b. Sometimes they trade with small groups of people in their village.
IX. Indus River Valley a. Much of the population in South Asia lives in crowded farming villages on the Indo-Ganges Plain. b. The Indus River Valley is on a plain in Pakistan. c. It is the site of the world’s oldest civilizations.
X. Deccan Plateau a. Lies between the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. b. The climate is dry, so therefore irrigation is needed for farming. c. Has rich volcanic soil from lava flows.
XI. Jobs a. Most people work as farmers in India. b. People fish and farm along southern India’s heavily populated coasts. c. Many people work in the clothing and textile industries as well.
Lesson Two – India and PersiaI. Harappa a. People farmed and stored grain, worked with metal crafts and pottery, wove cotton, and traded and sold goods. b. Harappan culture had spread through much of the Indus Valley. c. This civilization disappeared suddenly around 1700 B.C., possibly due to a natural disaster such as a monsoon, flood, or earthquake.
II. Mohenjo-Daro a. Mohenjo-Daro had complex architecture (buildings) and city planning. People constructed buildings and roads. b. Brick homes were laid out in a grid system (complex organization of streets). c. People enjoyed a large public bath and even had a system of garbage removal.
III. Aryans a. The Aryans migrated to the Indus River Valley from the north. b. They spoke the Sanskrit language. c. They soon developed villages and towns where they farmed and traded.
IV. Vedas a. The Vedas, or “Books of Knowledge”, contain the Aryans’ songs and stories. b. According to the Vedas, the Aryans waged many wars among their groups or tribes when their society became more prosperous from trading with one another. c. The Vedas also describe contests between gods and humans.
V. Aryan Social Order a. The Aryans believed that what a person did in life had much to do with who he or she was. (class system)HINT: Remember thesocial order by thinking Priest Brahminsof: and Burger Teachers King Vanilla Kshatriyas Sundae Warriors, kings, and other rulers Vaisyas Cultivators: artisans, merchants, and traders Sudras (serfs or slaves) Sudras
VI. Persians Arrive a. The Aryan culture spread east to the Ganges River Valley. b. News about riches in the valley encouraged people in Persia to migrate south.VII. Persian Empire a. Persian culture is united with the culture of the Babylonians, Lydians, and the Egyptians.
VIII. Persian Roads a. The Persians were the ones who constructed roads through the mountains in the north. b. The development of roads and trade by the Persian kings connected India with other lands in Central Asia which helped spread the culture. Question: This allowed for _________? i. Zoroastrianism, a religion founded by Persian prophet Zoroaster which identified one god as supreme and the enemy of evil, was brought to India by the Persians c. India was no longer cut off by its northern mountains.
How were the roads through theHimalaya Mountains similar to the Silk Roads?
IX. First Indian Empire a. The Mauryan Empire, was the first Indian empire; it extended to the borders of Persia. b. This empire changed life in India by controlling many aspects of life, such as how artisans worked and how doctors treated their patients. i. Armies of spies watched to see what was going on in the empire. c. The Mauryan Empire ended when the Gupta Empire took over.
XI. Gupta Advancements a. During the Gupta Empire India made great advancements in science, such as astronomy. b. Mathematics expanded with the development of the number system we use today. This system includes nine digits, zero, and the decimal. c. Higher education became available, but only to men. d. Sanskrit became the language of the wealthy. e. Literature, poetry and art flourished during this time. Invented Chess
XII. India’s Economy a. Textiles – silk, cotton, and linen- became especially valuable exports (goods that leave the country to be traded). b. The Gupta Empire ended when the Huns took over.
Lesson Three – HinduismI. Hinduism a. Hinduism is the main religion in India, and people in every caste are allowed to participate in Hinduism.
II. The Vedas a. The Vedas are the Holy Books for the Hindus. i. The Vedas contained stories and songs dedicated to the Aryan gods. b. Rig Veda – oldest of the 4 Vedas from Aryan time.
III. Beliefs of Hinduism a. The Hindus believed in the 7 Truths of Hinduism. b. The 7 Truths of Hinduism are the seven ways to live a good/moral life. c. Brahman (their god) is the source and final destination of everything.
Hinduism cont.d. Hindus believe that people should respect nature andanimals.e. Hindus also believe that good and bad actions willaffect a persons afterlife.
IV. The Caste System a. You are born into your caste and cannot move up or down in your lifetime. i. If you are good in your life, then you can be reincarnated into a higher caste in your next life. b. You can only marry within your caste. c. You can only have the jobs assigned to your caste. d. This system is NOT supported by the Indian government today.
Lesson 4 – BuddhismI. Buddha (The Enlightened One) a. The founder of Buddhism-Siddhartha Gautama, better known as Buddha or “The Enlightened One.” b. Instead of becoming king, he left his father’s palace to explore the world.
II. Beliefs of Buddhism a. Buddhists follow the Four Noble Truths and the Eightfold Fold Path. Most popular Buddhist symbol is the dharma wheel
Beliefs cont.b. Four Noble Truths i. Suffering is part of everyones life. ii. People suffer because they want too many things. iii. If you stop wanting so many things then you will not suffer. iv. You can free yourself from wanting by following the Eightfold Path:
Beliefs cont.c. Eightfold Path states that everyone should be happy withtheir life and not be jealous of anyone else.