Mm Unit 5


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  • Mm Unit 5

    1. 1. Object Orientated Data Topic 5: Multimedia Technology
    2. 2. Object Orientated Data Types <ul><li>Created on a computer not by sampling real world information </li></ul><ul><li>Details are stored on the attributes ( properties ) of each object that is stored in the file. </li></ul><ul><li>Each object can be altered by changing its attributes … </li></ul>
    3. 3. Examples <ul><li>Text </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A character in a text file can be given a different s i z e, c o l o u r or font </li></ul></ul><ul><li>MIDI music </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A note in a MIDI sound can be given a different volume, length or pitch </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Drawing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A shape in a drawing can be given a different size or fill colour </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3D image </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An object in a 3D image can be given a different location, rotation or texture </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Object Orientated Data Files <ul><li>All data is stored as a group of objects within a file </li></ul><ul><li>Each object can be edited individually without affecting any others </li></ul><ul><li>All aspects of each object are decided by its properties ( attributes ) </li></ul><ul><li>These files are basically a collection of objects with details about them. This means they can be stored as plain text files. </li></ul>
    5. 6. Input of Object Orientated Data <ul><li>Although OOD can be created using nothing but a simple text editor there are specialised input devices to help users create and edit them </li></ul><ul><li>You are already familiar with a keyboard for entering text </li></ul>
    6. 7. Specialised Input Devices <ul><li>To create drawings or 3D images a graphics tablet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More accurate than using a mouse </li></ul></ul><ul><li>To enter musical notes a MIDI keyboard </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Easier than using a computer keyboard </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3D digitisers can measure points on an object and generate a 3D object from data </li></ul>
    7. 8. Output / Display of OOD <ul><li>The quality of object orientated data is very dependant on the hardware & software used to output it. </li></ul><ul><li>For example: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Web browser setting can cause the same text to be displayed in different ways on different computers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Different graphics cards for rendering 3D images on screen may produce different quality and support different features </li></ul></ul>
    8. 9. Rasterisation <ul><li>Converting an object orientated file to a discrete (bitmap) file type </li></ul><ul><li>The equivalent of capturing data (as with digitised sound or bitmap image) </li></ul><ul><li>Difference is no input hardware is required </li></ul><ul><li>All the information about each object is lost. </li></ul><ul><li>Attributes can no longer be altered </li></ul>
    9. 10. Converting from OOD Digitised Sound file Often using ‘Save As’ or ‘Export’ function but can also be recorded internally Midi music Bitmap Image Scanning printed text or doing a ‘screen shot’ and pasting it into bitmap image software Text Bitmap Image Called ‘rendering’. Generates a flat (2D) image from a given point of view. 3D Image Bitmap Image Often in ‘Save As’ or ‘Export’ menu of drawing program 2D drawing Discrete data How it can be converted OOD
    10. 11. Object Orientated Data Topic 5: Multimedia Technology
    11. 12. Recap <ul><li>Object Orientated Data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All data is stored as a group of objects within a file </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Details are stored on the attributes ( properties ) of each object that is stored in the file. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each object can be edited individually without affecting any others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These files are basically a collection of objects with details about them. This means they can be stored as plain text files. </li></ul></ul>
    12. 13. Vector Graphics data <ul><li>A vector is a mathematical term for a line with a specific length and direction. </li></ul><ul><li>A raster monitor creates them image by drawing rows of dots </li></ul><ul><li>Vector displays use the electron beam to draw out the shapes (no colour) </li></ul>
    13. 14. Vector Vs Bitmap Scaling causes pixellation. Can be scaled to large sizes, keeping original quality. Only the image as a whole can be edited. Individual objects can be edited. Are very difficult to convert to vector formats Are easily converted to bitmap formats. File sizes can be large. File sizes are relatively small. Images can be very realistic (e.g. digital photograph). Difficult to create realistic images
    14. 15. Vector Vs Bitmap Size of image can be increased keeping quality and file size the same. Increasing the image size needs re-sampling and increases the file size. Only individual objects can be edited (it is sometimes impossible to edit only part of the object). Same appearance in all systems, regardless of hardware or software. Dependent on output hardware or software for appearance & quality. Pixel level editing is allowed - allowing effects such as spray paint, blur, effects and so on. Suitable for natural, hand-drawn looking, realistic images. Suitable for graphic, unrealistic images and designs.
    15. 16. Attributes <ul><li>Attributes are the properties that determine what and how objects will appear </li></ul><ul><li>These files can include a bitmap as a separate object… </li></ul>
    16. 17. Attributes Object 3 Object 2 Object 4 Object 1 Object 6 Object 5 Object 7
    17. 18. Object Orientated File Formats <ul><li>Drawing : SVG </li></ul><ul><li>3D : VRML/WML </li></ul><ul><li>Digitised sound : MIDI </li></ul>
    18. 19. Drawing File Formats <ul><li>Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) </li></ul><ul><li>A format for encoding vector graphics in XML (eXtensible Markup Language) </li></ul><ul><li>Designed to provide vector graphic content in Web pages. </li></ul><ul><li>Viewing: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You must have an SVG capable Browser, a plug-in for your browser or a stand-alone SVG viewer. </li></ul></ul>
    19. 20. 3D Image File Formats <ul><li>Virtual Reality Modelling Language/ World Representation Language (VRML/WRL) </li></ul><ul><li>Standard for describing interactive 3D objects and worlds </li></ul><ul><li>Capable of representing static and animated 3D & multimedia objects with hyperlinks to other media such as text, sounds, movies and images </li></ul>
    20. 21. VRML/WRL <ul><li>Creating/authoring VRML </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Authoring tools vary from expensive 3D modellers to freeware utilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WRL are text based so any text editor can be used. The suffix ‘.wrl’ is used to save </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Viewing VRML </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A VRML plug-in is needed </li></ul></ul>
    21. 22. VRML/WRL <ul><li>Navigating in VRML </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each player has slightly different features </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most have at least three navigation modes: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Walk – Allows you to move around </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fly – move around, up and down </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examine – rotate whole VRML world viewing from different angles </li></ul></ul></ul>
    22. 23. Synthesised Sound Data (MIDI) <ul><li>MIDI is a standard that was created to allow musical instruments to be able to communicate with each other </li></ul><ul><li>A MIDI file consists of Channels (up to 16) </li></ul><ul><li>Each channel consists of a sequence of messages including: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Start of a note </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Channel to use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pitch of the note </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Volume to play it at </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>End of note </li></ul></ul>
    23. 24. Synthesised Sound Data (MIDI) Sets musical tone of note which is determined by the frequency Pitch Meaning Attribute Speed at which the piece of music is set Tempo Rate Determines length of note (number of beats) Duration Controls loudness/amplitude of note Volume Defines instrument being played Instrument
    24. 25. Synthesised Sound Data (MIDI) <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Smaller file size </li></ul><ul><li>All aspects of music can be edited </li></ul><ul><li>Effects can be applied to individual instruments </li></ul><ul><li>There is no interference from the recording </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Never sounds as realistic as digitised sound </li></ul><ul><li>Dependent on soundcard for quality </li></ul><ul><li>Does not contain vocals </li></ul><ul><li>Fewer effects can be applied to sound </li></ul>