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# Higher Homework

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### Higher Homework

1. 1. Higher Computing Homework St Machar Academy
2. 2. Homework 1 <ul><li>Give two reasons why computers use the binary number system. </li></ul><ul><li>Convert each of the following decimal numbers to their binary equivalent. </li></ul><ul><li>a) 23 b) 45 c) 100 d) 255 </li></ul><ul><li>Convert each of the following binary numbers into their decimal equivalent. </li></ul><ul><li>a) 1010 b) 100000 c) 101011 d) 11111111 </li></ul><ul><li>Give two reasons why using a sign bit to represent numbers is impractical. </li></ul><ul><li>Convert the following decimal numbers to 2’s complement form using an 8 bit string of digits. </li></ul><ul><li>a) –3 b) – 35 </li></ul><ul><li>Floating point numbers are stored using a mantissa and an exponent. </li></ul><ul><li>a) What effect will increasing the size of the mantissa have? </li></ul><ul><li>b) What effect will increasing the size of the exponent have? </li></ul><ul><li>a) The 7 bit ASCII code can represent how many different characters? </li></ul><ul><li>b) Explain what method is used to encode Unicode. </li></ul><ul><li>a) Explain what is meant by the resolution of a graphic </li></ul><ul><li>b) Explain what is meant by the term bit-depth. </li></ul><ul><li>Give one advantage and one disadvantage of using bit mapped graphics. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe two advantages of using vector graphic representation. </li></ul>Computer Systems Computer Systems 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
3. 3. Computer Systems Computer Systems Homework 2 <ul><li>What are the main components of a computer? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the purpose of the system bus and what type of information is it likely to transmit? </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the system of events in the fetch execute cycle. </li></ul><ul><li>The computer has two types of memory, RAM and ROM. What are the differences between the two and what is the main purpose of each type? </li></ul><ul><li>Name the three parts of the CPU. </li></ul><ul><li>The control bus is not really a bus at all but a collection of lines which send signals to other parts of the computer. </li></ul><ul><li>(a) Describe the function of three such lines. </li></ul><ul><li>(b) Explain why the address bus is uni-directional. </li></ul><ul><li>(c) Explain the function of the data bus. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the concept of addressability with reference to the address bus. </li></ul><ul><li>A computer has a 32 bit address bus and a 64 bit data bus. </li></ul><ul><li>a) What is the word length of this computer? </li></ul><ul><li>b) What is the maximum amount of memory that can be addressed by this computer? </li></ul><ul><li>c) Without reference to cost, why might this computer not have the maximum amount of memory? </li></ul><ul><li>d) What effect on the computer’s performance would there be if the width of the data bus were increased? </li></ul>2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 1
4. 4. Computer Systems Computer Systems Homework 3 <ul><li>What factors can influence the MIP rate of measuring performance? </li></ul><ul><li>Explain what is meant by the cycle time with reference to the clock speed. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain why two computers rated at the same clock speed may not have an equivalent performance. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain what is meant by a benchmark test in measuring a computer’s performance and give an example of one such benchmark. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the effect of the width of the data bus on a computer’s performance. </li></ul><ul><li>Why is an interface needed to connect peripherals to the system bus? </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the standard functions of an interface. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the difference between serial and parallel transmission. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain why the increase in the width of the data bus can improve system performance. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain why the increase in the width of the address bus can improve system performance. </li></ul>2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
5. 5. Computer Systems Computer Systems Homework 4 <ul><li>A peripheral device captures colour images and saves them to memory. </li></ul><ul><li>a) Describe how the color is represented using 24 bits </li></ul><ul><li>b) The image is saved with a resolution of 600dpi. How many pixels are required to save an image of 6” x 4”. Give your answer in MB and show your working. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain how a buffer is used with a peripheral. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the concept of spooling illustrating your answer with an example. </li></ul><ul><li>State the hardware required in terms of peripherals to set up a computer system to produce a catalogue for a garden centre. The finished catalogue will be taken on electronic media to a printers. </li></ul><ul><li>Justify the choice of two of these devices in terms of resolution, capacity, speed, cost and compatibility. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the features, uses and advantages of a solid state device such as a USB flash drive. </li></ul><ul><li>a) What is the purpose of an interface? </li></ul><ul><li>b) State the factors that have to be resolved by an interface. </li></ul><ul><li>8. Describe the difference between parallel and serial interfaces </li></ul>1 2 2 2 2 2 4 1 2 2
6. 6. Computer Systems Computer Systems Homework 5 <ul><li>Explain the difference between LAN’s and WAN’s with reference to transmission media, bandwidths and geographical spread. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the difference between a mainframe computer with terminals and a network of computers. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the differences between client server and peer-to-peer networks. </li></ul><ul><li>On a LAN describe the functions of file, print and web servers. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe a bus topology in terms of nodes and channels. Describe the consequences of failure of a node and a channel. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the functions of a hub, switch and router on a network with particular reference to the differences between a hub and a switch. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain why a network computer needs a network interface card (NIC). </li></ul><ul><li>Explain briefly why networks are becoming increasingly widespread. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain how a virus may be spread to a computer and how it then may take effect. </li></ul><ul><li>The access a user has on the network depends on their permissions. Explain what is meant by permissions giving as an example the permissions you may have on your own folder and a shared folder on the network. </li></ul>2 2 2 2 2 2 3 1 2 2
7. 7. Homework 6 Computer Systems Computer Systems <ul><li>Describe the function of a bootstrap loader program. </li></ul><ul><li>Briefly describe the main purpose of each function of a single-user operating system </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the purpose of each of: - </li></ul><ul><li>a) Virus checker </li></ul><ul><li>b) Disk defragmenter </li></ul><ul><li>Explain why there is a need for standard file formats. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the differences between a JPEG and GIF graphic. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the types of software that are required to produce a school web site and explain why you chose these types. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the data objects and the operations that can be performed on them in the context of a spreadsheet program. </li></ul><ul><li>When selecting an Application package to perform a certain task the software compatibility needs to be addressed. Describe the checks that need to be made for each of memory requirements, storage requirements and operating systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Computer viruses are classed by three main types, file virus, boot sector virus and macro virus. For each type describe how the virus is delivered and how it operates. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the anti-virus technique of heuristic detection. </li></ul>1 3 2 2 1 3 2 2 3 1
8. 8. <ul><li>The software development process consists of seven stages. Name the seven stages in order. </li></ul><ul><li>The software development process is an iterative process. Explain the term iterative as used in this case. </li></ul><ul><li>Name the documentation normally produced during the software development process. </li></ul><ul><li>The software should have an appropriate user interface. Describe the factors that should be taken into account when an appropriate user interface is designed. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe what is meant by efficient computer software. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe what is meant by maintainable computer software. </li></ul>Software Development Software Development Homework 7 2 2 2 2 1 1
9. 9. <ul><li>Explain why, in the process of software development, the Waterfall Model emerged. </li></ul><ul><li>Why may software developers not get the software correct at the first attempt? </li></ul><ul><li>Explain why regular feedback to members of the development team is important. </li></ul><ul><li>Which process describes breaking a complex system down into more manageable components. </li></ul><ul><li>Which document in the software development process is a legally binding contract? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the outcome of the analysis stage used to ascertain? </li></ul><ul><li>What characteristics define software as robust? </li></ul><ul><li>Describe what is included in the functional specification. </li></ul>Software Development Software Development Homework 8 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1
10. 10. <ul><li>Explain the purpose of testing at the implementation stage. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the purpose of debugging software. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the difference between testing and debugging. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the purpose of test data. </li></ul><ul><li>What is meant when we say that software is fit for purpose? </li></ul><ul><li>Why is internal documentation important at the implementation stage? </li></ul><ul><li>Describe two reasons why maintenance may be needed by software. </li></ul><ul><li>What is the advantage to a programmer to use modules from a module library? </li></ul><ul><li>An array holds lists of student names and their marks in a test. Which standard algorithm would be used to find: - </li></ul><ul><li>a)     David Black </li></ul><ul><li>b)     The number of students scoring over 70% </li></ul><ul><li>c)     The top mark </li></ul><ul><li>d)     The bottom mark </li></ul>Software Development Software Development Homework 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2
11. 11. <ul><li>Why is the design of the human computer interface so important? </li></ul><ul><li>Describe three types of maintenance activity. </li></ul><ul><li>What must be considered when creating test data? </li></ul><ul><li>What is acceptance testing? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the purpose of a structured walkthrough? </li></ul><ul><li>A program can be described as correct but not necessarily efficient. How can this statement be true? </li></ul><ul><li>Why does the use of a module library speed up the software development process? </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>Software Development Software Development Homework 10 1 2 1 1 2 1 2
12. 12. <ul><li>Explain what structure diagram is. </li></ul><ul><li>What is the purpose of pseudocode? </li></ul><ul><li>Why must suitable test data be chosen to test a program? </li></ul><ul><li>What factors must be considered when creating test data? </li></ul><ul><li>What is meant by using test data in a dry run? </li></ul><ul><li>What are CASE tools? </li></ul><ul><li>Explain why a program may be described as robust. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain why a program may be described as reliable. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain why a program may be described as portable. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>Software Development Software Development Homework 11 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1
13. 13. <ul><li>What are the five groups of key personnel involved with a software development project? </li></ul><ul><li>What is a systems analyst? </li></ul><ul><li>Describe three techniques used at the analysis stage of a software development process. </li></ul><ul><li>What is a requirements specification? </li></ul><ul><li>Describe briefly the role of the project manager. </li></ul><ul><li>What is the purpose of systems analysis? </li></ul><ul><li>Describe each of: - </li></ul><ul><li>The requirements elicitation. </li></ul><ul><li>The requirements specification. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>Software Development Software Development Homework 12 1 1 2 1 1 1 3
14. 14. <ul><li>Describe two features in a procedural language which make it suitable for solving scientific problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe two features of a declarative language. </li></ul><ul><li>Define an event in an event driven programming language. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe a benefit of using a scripting language. </li></ul><ul><li>Give a reason why there was a need for scripting languages to develop. </li></ul><ul><li>A program can be compiled or interpreted to translate it from a high level language to machine code. Describe the difference between the two. </li></ul><ul><li>Give an example of an object-oriented language and describe briefly how an object-oriented language may work. </li></ul>Software Development Software Development Homework 13 2 2 1 1 1 2 1
15. 15. Multimedia Technology Multimedia Technology Homework 14 <ul><li>Explain what a storyboard is used for and give examples of the type of information it might contain. </li></ul><ul><li>Give an advantage of using a WYSIWYG package for developing multimedia. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe one difference between an Authoring package and a Presentation package. </li></ul><ul><li>What is an embedded file and why one might be useful? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the function of a Codec? </li></ul><ul><li>Describe a situation where a Hardware Codec may be used. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe what a container file is and give two advantages of using one. </li></ul>3 1 2 2 2 3 1
16. 16. <ul><li>Outline the difference between images stored as bit-mapped and images stored as object-oriented graphics. </li></ul><ul><li>What are the main advantages of storing graphics as object-oriented graphics. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the term “resolution independence”. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain how the following types of graphical elements are captured. Refer to the file formats and how the graphics are used in multimedia presentations: </li></ul><ul><li>Clip art images </li></ul><ul><li>Graphs and charts and original drawings </li></ul><ul><li>Small animations suitable for Web pages </li></ul><ul><li>What is meant by the resolution and colour density of a graphic? For what reasons may they be reduced? </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the difference between an interlaced and a non-interlaced graphics file. </li></ul><ul><li>Give a reason why an interlaced file may be more appropriate for use on web pages </li></ul><ul><li>Calculate the size of a GIF file which has a resolution of 800x600. Show all working. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe what interpolation is and when it might be used. </li></ul>Multimedia Technology Multimedia Technology Homework 15 2 2 2 3 3 2 2 3 3
17. 17. <ul><li>In what type of file format is a colour scanner likely to save an image it has scanned? </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the process of how a digital camera records an image on its storage device, mentioning specifically the storage medium and the file formats likely to be used. </li></ul><ul><li>For the file formats TIFF, JPEG and GIF state:-· </li></ul><ul><li>the type of file format which is used </li></ul><ul><li>the size implications of using each format </li></ul><ul><li>in detail how each file format is stored </li></ul><ul><li>Explain what is meant by Dithering and give a situation where it would be required. </li></ul><ul><li>Calculate the storage space required for a graphic which is 6 x 4 inches and has a resolution of 1200x1600 and is in true colour. Show all working. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the role of a CCD in a digital camera </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the benefit of using a camera which has 3 CCD’s instead of a single CCD </li></ul>Multimedia Technology Multimedia Technology Homework 16 1 5 3 3 3 2 2
18. 18. <ul><li>Describe two developments in sound card technologies. </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Signal Processing (DSP) is a feature of interface cards. What role does DSP play in these cards? </li></ul><ul><li>If a 20 second sound recording is sampled at 11kHz, with 8 bit resolution in stereo, what size would the file produced be? Show all your working. </li></ul><ul><li>If the sound clip is going to be available on the web then a standard file format should be used to store it. Give two reasons why a standard file format is most useful in this case? </li></ul><ul><li>Describe (giving appropriate values) what is meant by a CD quality sound file. </li></ul><ul><li>What is meant by ‘normalisation’ and why is it used? </li></ul><ul><li>What is clipping? Why does this happen? </li></ul><ul><li>State two differences between stereo sound and surround sound . </li></ul>Multimedia Technology Multimedia Technology Homework 17 2 2 2 4 2 2 2 2
19. 19. <ul><li>ADPCM is a method of compressing PCM data. Describe how ADPCM works. </li></ul><ul><li>Do MP3 files use s lossy or lossless method of compressing sound files? Give a reason for your answer. </li></ul><ul><li>Why are MP3 files the type of sound file most commonly used for distributing music over the Internet? </li></ul><ul><li>A MIDI sound file is stored in the same way as a vector graphic – by storing the attributes. Name and describe three attributes which are stored in a MIDI file. </li></ul><ul><li>Why are MIDI files so popular for storing synthesized sound? </li></ul><ul><li>Give one advantage of Firewire over USB for data transmission </li></ul><ul><li>Explain two differences between WiFi and Bluetooth. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain what is meant by Holographic storage and give an advantage of Holographic storage over CD or DVD. </li></ul>Multimedia Technology Multimedia Technology Homework 18 2 2 6 2 1 1 2 3
20. 20. Multimedia Technology Multimedia Technology Homework 19 4 2 4 4 <ul><li>Describe one advantage and one disadvantage of using streaming to deliver a music video over the net in terms of Content Delivery and in terms of Copyright Protection. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe how video is stored using AVI </li></ul><ul><li>Describe how video is stored using MPEG </li></ul><ul><li>Give an example of how a timeline would be used in video editing. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe two types of transition which can be used to link video clips. </li></ul><ul><li>Calculate the size of a 25 second video clip which was recorded at 25fps, in 256 colours, in PAL format (768x576). Show all your working. </li></ul><ul><li>Calculate the size of a 90 second, full colour video clip filmed using a 3.2 megapixel video camera at 25 fps. Show all your working </li></ul>2 1 2