World Literature and Composition7 February 2012Mrs. Stephanie Loomis
Journal Prompt7 February When youre safe at home you wish you were having an adventure; when youre having an adventure you wish you were safe at home. Thornton Wilder
Quick Bio of Thornton Wilder American author who lived from 1897-1975 Known best for his plays, especially Our Town. The Bridge of San Luis Rey won the Pulitzer Prize for literature in 1928 It has never been out of print. His other works include The Matchmaker (which became Hello Dolly on Broadway) and Alfred Hitchcock’s psychological thriller, Shadow of a Doubt His work is mostly an exploration of humanity and human nature
Is there a direction and meaningbeyond the individual’s own will? Is there truly free will? Or is everything we do pre-determined by God?
The Bridge of San Luis ReyThornton Wilder said, about this book, “the central idea of the work, the justification for a number of human lives that comes up as a result of the sudden collapse of a bridge, stems from friendly arguments with my father, a strict Calvinist. Strict Puritans imagine God all too easily as a petty schoolmaster who minutely weights guilt against merit, and they overlook Gods Caritas, which is more all- encompassing and powerful. Gods love has to transcend his just retribution. “
Arminianism v Calvinism Arminianism Calvinism Free-Will or Human Ability Total Inability or Total DepravityAlthough human nature was seriously affected by the fall, man Because of the fall, man is unable has not been left in a state of total of himself to believe the gospel. spiritual helplessness. God The sinner is dead, blind, and graciously enables every sinner to deaf to the things of God; his repent and believe, but He does heart is deceitful and not interfere with mans freedom. desperately corrupt. His will is Each sinner possesses a free will, not free, it is in bondage to his and his eternal destiny depends evil nature, therefore, he will on how he uses it. Mans freedom not - indeed he cannot - choose consists of his ability to choose good over evil in the spiritual good over evil in spiritual matters; realm. Consequently, it takes his will is not enslaved to his sinful nature. The sinner has the much more than the Spirits power to either cooperate with assistance to bring a sinner to Gods Spirit and be regenerated or Christ - it takes regeneration by resist Gods grace and perish. The which the Spirit makes the lost sinner needs the Spirits sinner alive and gives him a new assistance, but he does not have nature. Faith is not something to be regenerated by the Spirit man contributes to salvation before he can believe, for faith is but is itself a part of Gods gift mans act and precedes the new of salvation - it is Gods gift to birth. Faith is the sinners gift to the sinner, not the sinners gift God; it is mans contribution to to God salvation.
Arminianism v Calvinism Arminianism Calvinism Conditional Election Unconditional ElectionGods choice of certain individuals Gods choice of certain unto salvation before the individuals unto salvation foundation of the world was before the foundation of the based upon His foreseeing that world rested solely in His own they would respond to His call. sovereign will. His choice of He selected only those whom He particular sinners was not knew would of themselves freely believe the gospel. Election based on any foreseen response therefore was determined by or of obedience on their part, such conditioned upon what man as faith, repentance, etc. On the would do. The faith which God contrary, God gives faith and foresaw and upon which He based repentance to each individual His choice was not given to the whom He selected. These acts sinner by God (it was not created are the result, not the cause of by the regenerating power of the Gods choice. Election therefore Holy Spirit) but resulted solely was not determined by or from mans will. It was left conditioned upon any virtuous entirely up to man as to who quality or act foreseen in man. would believe and therefore as to Those whom God sovereignly who would be elected unto elected He brings through the salvation. God chose those whom power of the Spirit to a willing He knew would, of their own free will, choose Christ. Thus the acceptance of Christ. Thus sinners choice of Christ, not Gods choice of the sinner, not Gods choice of the sinner, is the the sinners choice of Christ, is ultimate cause of salvation. the ultimate cause of salvation.
Arminianism v Calvinism Arminianism Calvinism Universal Redemption or Particular Redemption or General Atonement Limited AtonementChrists redeeming work made Christs redeeming work was it possible for everyone to be intended to save the elect only and actually secured saved but did not actually salvation for them. His death secure the salvation of was substitutionary anyone. Although Christ died endurance of the penalty of for all men and for every man, sin in the place of certain only those who believe on specified sinners. In addition Him are saved. His death to putting away the sins of enabled God to pardon His people, Christs sinners on the condition that redemption secured they believe, but it did not everything necessary for their salvation, including faith actually put away anyones which unites them to Him. sins. Christs redemption The gift of faith is infallibly becomes effective only if man applied by the Spirit to all for chooses to accept it. whom Christ died, therefore guaranteeing their salvation.
Arminianism v Calvinism Arminianism Calvinism The Holy Spirit Can Be The Efficacious Call of the Spirit Effectually Resisted or Irresistible Grace The Spirit calls inwardly all In addition to the outward general those who are called outwardly call to salvation which is made to by the gospel invitation; He everyone who hears the gospel, does all that He can to bring the Holy Spirit extends to the elect a special inward call that every sinner to salvation. But inevitably brings them to inasmuch as man is free, he can salvation. The internal call (which successfully resist the Spirits is made only to the elect) cannot call. The Spirit cannot be rejected; it always results in regenerate the sinner until he conversion. By means of this believes; faith (which is mans special call the Spirit irresistibly contribution) precedes and draws sinners to Christ. He is not makes possible the new birth. limited in His work of applying Thus, mans free will limits the salvation by mans will, nor is He Spirit in the application of dependent upon mans Christs saving work. The Holy cooperation for success. The Spirit Spirit can only draw to Christ graciously causes the elect sinner those who allow Him to have to cooperate, to believe, to repent, His way with them. Until the to come freely and willingly to Christ. Gods grace, therefore, is sinner responds, the Spirit invincible; it never fails to result cannot give life. Gods grace, in the salvation of those to whom therefore, is not invincible; it it is extended. can be, and often is, resisted and thwarted by man.
Arminianism v Calvinism Arminianism Calvinism Falling from Grace Perseverance of the SaintsThose who believe and are truly All who are chosen by God, saved can lose their salvation redeemed by Christ, and by failing to keep up their given faith by the Spirit are faith, etc. All Arminians have eternally saved. They are kept not been agreed on this point; in faith by the power of some have held that believers Almighty God and thus are eternally secure in Christ - persevere to the end. that once a sinner is regenerated, he can never be lost.
ArminianismRoman Catholic Salvation is accomplished through theMethodist combined efforts of God (who takes the initiative) and man (who mustMost Baptist respond) - mans response being the determining factor. God hasChurch of Christ provided salvation for everyone, but His provision becomes effectivePentecostal only for those who, of their own free will, "choose" to cooperate with Him and accept His offer of grace. At the crucial point, mans will plays a decisive role; thus man, not God, determines who will be recipients of the gift of salvation.
CalvinismPresbyterian Salvation is accomplished by theReformed almighty power of the Triune God. The Father chose a people, the SonSome Baptist died for them, the Holy Spirit makes Christs death effective byPuritans bringing the elect to faith and repentance, thereby causing themCongregationalist to willingly obey the gospel. The entire process (election, redemption, regeneration) is the work of God and is by grace alone. Thus God, not man, determines who will be the recipients of the gift of salvation.
Is there a direction and meaningbeyond the individual’s own will? Wilder doesn’t attempt to answer the question. He leaves that up to the reader. Listen to his reading of Part One from 1951…
Homework Re-read Part One and Read Part Two (The Marquesa de Montemayor) Write one discussion question from Part Two that relates to the quality of Doña Maria’s character, Pepita’s character, the relationships of this chapter, and why the Marquesa and her servant were among those predestined to be on that bridge at that time. Questions must be e-mailed to me no later than 6 pm on Thursday night! (firstname.lastname@example.org) Questions may be in the body of the email or attached as a .doc/.docx .