Ch. 17 – Therapy and Change
Psychotherapy• Any treatment used by therapists to help troubled  individuals overcome their problems.1. Verbal Interactio...
The Nature of Psychotherapy• Medical Model• Read Quote from “One Nation Under Therapy”• “Mental Illness” = Less Social Sti...
Main Kinds of Therapy•   Psychoanalysis•   Humanistic•   Cognitive•   Behavioral•   BiologicalActivity – Leopold is strugg...
Eclectic Approach• Pulling in many types, using the one that works bestStrengths?Weaknesses?
What makes a good therapist?• Psychological Healthy• Empathy – warmth/understanding• Experience dealing with people/unders...
Group Therapies• Most often grouped by issues• Patients work together with the aid of a leader to  resolve interpersonal p...
Does Psychotherapy Work?• 1994 Consumer Reports Self Reported Survey(Since not random, can’t be generalized, just see tren...
Section 2 – Psychoanalysis/Humanistic
What is Psychoanalysis?• Therapy aimed at making patients aware of their  unconscious motives so that they can gain contro...
Resistance• Reluctance of a patient either to reveal painful feelings  or to examine long standing behavior patterns
Dream Analysis• Interpret content of dreams – reveal motives• Manifest content – actual dream content• Latent content – hi...
Transference• Patient feels similar feels for therapists as a different  significant other in their life
Freudian Approach
Humanistic Therapy• Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers – key guys• Focus on value, dignity, and worth of each person;  holds t...
Client-Centered Therapy• Client and therapist are partners in therapy• Client encouraged to discuss whatever concerns them
Nondirective Therapy• Free flow of images/ideas, no particular direction• Client completely in charge• Therapist listens, ...
Active Listening• Empathetic listening, listener acknowledges, restates,  clarifies a person’s thoughts/concerns without a...
Section 3 – Cognitive/Behavior Therapies
Cognitive Therapies• Changing emotions/behaviors by modifying thoughts• Assumes that faulty cognitions are the cause of  d...
Rational-Emotive Therapy• Ellis (1973) – people behave in delibrate/rational ways  based on assumptions about life.• There...
Beck’s Cognitive Therapy• Focus on illogical thought process, disprove thoughts• 3 Types of Illogical Thoughts1. Overgener...
Bipolar and Psychotherapy
Behavior Therapies• Focus on behavior, not thinking• Assumption  Disturbed people learn bad behavior,  any behavior can b...
Counter-conditioning• 3 Steps1. Anxiety hierarchy – list things, least to most anxious2. Learn deep muscle relaxation3. Im...
Systematic DesensitizationHelp patient overcome irrational fears/anxieties• Imagine fear while relaxing• Gradually imagine...
Aversive Conditioning• Linking unpleasant state with an unwanted behavior in  an attempt to eliminate the behavior• Shot f...
Contingency Management• Undesirable behavior is not reinforced, desirable  behavior is reinforced• Reward contingent on ne...
Cognitive-behavior Therapy• Try to change behavior and thinking• Place emphasis on changing clients interpretation of  sit...
Section 4 – Biological Approaches
Drug Therapy• Most commonly used biological approach, and  approach to psychological problems overall
Antipsychotic Drugs• Used to treat schizophrenia• Reduces agitation, delusions, hallucinations by blocking  activity of do...
Antidepressant drugs• Treat major depression• Affects neurotransmitters  noradrenalin and serotonin• Some of the most wide...
Lithium Carbonate• Naturally occuring salt element(other drugs are synthetics)• Used to treat Bipolar disorder• Helps redu...
Anti-anxiety Drugs•   Used to treat Anxiety disorders; slow nervous system•   Depressives•   Valium, Xanax•   Side Effects...
Electroconvulsive Therapy•   “Shock Treatment”•   Sent through brain•   Treat severe depression, acute mania, schizophreni...
Psychosurgery•   Drastic procedures, last resort•   More common in past•   Destroy part of brain to relieve symptoms•   Ex...
Prefrontal Lobotomy• A section of the frontal lobe is destroyed• Help control emotions• Side effects  difficulty planning...
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Psychology notes ch. 17 - therapy - short

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Psychology notes ch. 17 - therapy - short

  1. 1. Ch. 17 – Therapy and Change
  2. 2. Psychotherapy• Any treatment used by therapists to help troubled individuals overcome their problems.1. Verbal Interaction2. Development of Supportive/Trusting Relationship3. Analysis of problems by therapist, including strategies to solve the problems
  3. 3. The Nature of Psychotherapy• Medical Model• Read Quote from “One Nation Under Therapy”• “Mental Illness” = Less Social Stigma, but also less taking responsibility/personal efforts to overcome problems• Agree or Disagree?
  4. 4. Main Kinds of Therapy• Psychoanalysis• Humanistic• Cognitive• Behavioral• BiologicalActivity – Leopold is struggling in school. He has problems relating to his peers and completing homework because he really doesn’t care. While not overtly misbehaving in class, he often just ignores the instructor, spending much time in class day dreaming.In groups, use each approach to try to treat Leopold. Identify his potential problem. What solution(s) would you suggest? What other things can you deduce from this scenario about potential problems?
  5. 5. Eclectic Approach• Pulling in many types, using the one that works bestStrengths?Weaknesses?
  6. 6. What makes a good therapist?• Psychological Healthy• Empathy – warmth/understanding• Experience dealing with people/understanding complexities of individuals and situations
  7. 7. Group Therapies• Most often grouped by issues• Patients work together with the aid of a leader to resolve interpersonal problems• Put people who are struggling with similar problems together.• Includes family therapy, self-help groups• Benefits?• Concerns?
  8. 8. Does Psychotherapy Work?• 1994 Consumer Reports Self Reported Survey(Since not random, can’t be generalized, just see trends)1. Therapy did help  feel better, minimize/eliminate symptoms, especially if lasts 6+ months2. Improvements greatest when from psychologists, psychiatrists, and social workers3. Longer therapy lasted = greater improvements4. Type of therapy generally didn’t matter
  9. 9. Section 2 – Psychoanalysis/Humanistic
  10. 10. What is Psychoanalysis?• Therapy aimed at making patients aware of their unconscious motives so that they can gain control of their behavior.• Overcome repression recognize and confront hidden impulses and feelings• Lead to abreaction release of energy/tensions = growth
  11. 11. Resistance• Reluctance of a patient either to reveal painful feelings or to examine long standing behavior patterns
  12. 12. Dream Analysis• Interpret content of dreams – reveal motives• Manifest content – actual dream content• Latent content – hidden/symbolic meanings
  13. 13. Transference• Patient feels similar feels for therapists as a different significant other in their life
  14. 14. Freudian Approach
  15. 15. Humanistic Therapy• Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers – key guys• Focus on value, dignity, and worth of each person; holds that healthy living is the result of realizing one’s full potential (“self-actualizing”)
  16. 16. Client-Centered Therapy• Client and therapist are partners in therapy• Client encouraged to discuss whatever concerns them
  17. 17. Nondirective Therapy• Free flow of images/ideas, no particular direction• Client completely in charge• Therapist listens, encourages conversation, doesn’t give opinions
  18. 18. Active Listening• Empathetic listening, listener acknowledges, restates, clarifies a person’s thoughts/concerns without arguing or judging• Used in relationships also…
  19. 19. Section 3 – Cognitive/Behavior Therapies
  20. 20. Cognitive Therapies• Changing emotions/behaviors by modifying thoughts• Assumes that faulty cognitions are the cause of distorted behaviors, attitudes and emotionsDisconfirmation – evidence challenge clients thinkingReconceptualization – work towards new belief systemsInsight – work toward understanding/deriving new or revised beliefs
  21. 21. Rational-Emotive Therapy• Ellis (1973) – people behave in delibrate/rational ways based on assumptions about life.• Therefore, problems arise from false assumptions• So, the goal is to change those assumptions• Techniques - Role Playing, Modeling, Persuasion• ABC’s – Activating, Belief, Consequences
  22. 22. Beck’s Cognitive Therapy• Focus on illogical thought process, disprove thoughts• 3 Types of Illogical Thoughts1. Overgeneralization2. Polarized Thinking3. Selective Attention
  23. 23. Bipolar and Psychotherapy
  24. 24. Behavior Therapies• Focus on behavior, not thinking• Assumption  Disturbed people learn bad behavior, any behavior can be unlearned, often through conditioning• Reasons for behavior unimportant
  25. 25. Counter-conditioning• 3 Steps1. Anxiety hierarchy – list things, least to most anxious2. Learn deep muscle relaxation3. Imagine/experience each step with gradual intensityUseful in treating phobias
  26. 26. Systematic DesensitizationHelp patient overcome irrational fears/anxieties• Imagine fear while relaxing• Gradually imagine/experience increase in stress• Can’t feel anxious while relaxing at the same time
  27. 27. Aversive Conditioning• Linking unpleasant state with an unwanted behavior in an attempt to eliminate the behavior• Shot for alcoholics, feel sick• Aversive = bad
  28. 28. Contingency Management• Undesirable behavior is not reinforced, desirable behavior is reinforced• Reward contingent on new behavior
  29. 29. Cognitive-behavior Therapy• Try to change behavior and thinking• Place emphasis on changing clients interpretation of situation
  30. 30. Section 4 – Biological Approaches
  31. 31. Drug Therapy• Most commonly used biological approach, and approach to psychological problems overall
  32. 32. Antipsychotic Drugs• Used to treat schizophrenia• Reduces agitation, delusions, hallucinations by blocking activity of dopamine in the brain• Drugs are tranquilizers
  33. 33. Antidepressant drugs• Treat major depression• Affects neurotransmitters noradrenalin and serotonin• Some of the most widely prescribed drugs in the USA
  34. 34. Lithium Carbonate• Naturally occuring salt element(other drugs are synthetics)• Used to treat Bipolar disorder• Helps reduce mood swings
  35. 35. Anti-anxiety Drugs• Used to treat Anxiety disorders; slow nervous system• Depressives• Valium, Xanax• Side Effects – Drowsiness, Dependence
  36. 36. Electroconvulsive Therapy• “Shock Treatment”• Sent through brain• Treat severe depression, acute mania, schizophrenia• Not sure how it works• Theory – Induced seizures “prime” the brain, “knock loose” some transmitters
  37. 37. Psychosurgery• Drastic procedures, last resort• More common in past• Destroy part of brain to relieve symptoms• Example – Severed corpus callosum to relieve seizures
  38. 38. Prefrontal Lobotomy• A section of the frontal lobe is destroyed• Help control emotions• Side effects  difficulty planning, apathy, lack creativity

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