Psychotherapy• Any treatment used by therapists to help troubled individuals overcome their problems.1. Verbal Interaction2. Development of Supportive/Trusting Relationship3. Analysis of problems by therapist, including strategies to solve the problems
The Nature of Psychotherapy• Medical Model• Read Quote from “One Nation Under Therapy”• “Mental Illness” = Less Social Stigma, but also less taking responsibility/personal efforts to overcome problems• Agree or Disagree?
Main Kinds of Therapy• Psychoanalysis• Humanistic• Cognitive• Behavioral• BiologicalActivity – Leopold is struggling in school. He has problems relating to his peers and completing homework because he really doesn’t care. While not overtly misbehaving in class, he often just ignores the instructor, spending much time in class day dreaming.In groups, use each approach to try to treat Leopold. Identify his potential problem. What solution(s) would you suggest? What other things can you deduce from this scenario about potential problems?
Eclectic Approach• Pulling in many types, using the one that works bestStrengths?Weaknesses?
What makes a good therapist?• Psychological Healthy• Empathy – warmth/understanding• Experience dealing with people/understanding complexities of individuals and situations
Group Therapies• Most often grouped by issues• Patients work together with the aid of a leader to resolve interpersonal problems• Put people who are struggling with similar problems together.• Includes family therapy, self-help groups• Benefits?• Concerns?
Does Psychotherapy Work?• 1994 Consumer Reports Self Reported Survey(Since not random, can’t be generalized, just see trends)1. Therapy did help feel better, minimize/eliminate symptoms, especially if lasts 6+ months2. Improvements greatest when from psychologists, psychiatrists, and social workers3. Longer therapy lasted = greater improvements4. Type of therapy generally didn’t matter
What is Psychoanalysis?• Therapy aimed at making patients aware of their unconscious motives so that they can gain control of their behavior.• Overcome repression recognize and confront hidden impulses and feelings• Lead to abreaction release of energy/tensions = growth
Resistance• Reluctance of a patient either to reveal painful feelings or to examine long standing behavior patterns
Humanistic Therapy• Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers – key guys• Focus on value, dignity, and worth of each person; holds that healthy living is the result of realizing one’s full potential (“self-actualizing”)
Client-Centered Therapy• Client and therapist are partners in therapy• Client encouraged to discuss whatever concerns them
Nondirective Therapy• Free flow of images/ideas, no particular direction• Client completely in charge• Therapist listens, encourages conversation, doesn’t give opinions
Active Listening• Empathetic listening, listener acknowledges, restates, clarifies a person’s thoughts/concerns without arguing or judging• Used in relationships also…
Cognitive Therapies• Changing emotions/behaviors by modifying thoughts• Assumes that faulty cognitions are the cause of distorted behaviors, attitudes and emotionsDisconfirmation – evidence challenge clients thinkingReconceptualization – work towards new belief systemsInsight – work toward understanding/deriving new or revised beliefs
Rational-Emotive Therapy• Ellis (1973) – people behave in delibrate/rational ways based on assumptions about life.• Therefore, problems arise from false assumptions• So, the goal is to change those assumptions• Techniques - Role Playing, Modeling, Persuasion• ABC’s – Activating, Belief, Consequences
Beck’s Cognitive Therapy• Focus on illogical thought process, disprove thoughts• 3 Types of Illogical Thoughts1. Overgeneralization2. Polarized Thinking3. Selective Attention
Behavior Therapies• Focus on behavior, not thinking• Assumption Disturbed people learn bad behavior, any behavior can be unlearned, often through conditioning• Reasons for behavior unimportant
Counter-conditioning• 3 Steps1. Anxiety hierarchy – list things, least to most anxious2. Learn deep muscle relaxation3. Imagine/experience each step with gradual intensityUseful in treating phobias
Systematic DesensitizationHelp patient overcome irrational fears/anxieties• Imagine fear while relaxing• Gradually imagine/experience increase in stress• Can’t feel anxious while relaxing at the same time
Aversive Conditioning• Linking unpleasant state with an unwanted behavior in an attempt to eliminate the behavior• Shot for alcoholics, feel sick• Aversive = bad
Contingency Management• Undesirable behavior is not reinforced, desirable behavior is reinforced• Reward contingent on new behavior
Cognitive-behavior Therapy• Try to change behavior and thinking• Place emphasis on changing clients interpretation of situation
Drug Therapy• Most commonly used biological approach, and approach to psychological problems overall
Antipsychotic Drugs• Used to treat schizophrenia• Reduces agitation, delusions, hallucinations by blocking activity of dopamine in the brain• Drugs are tranquilizers
Antidepressant drugs• Treat major depression• Affects neurotransmitters noradrenalin and serotonin• Some of the most widely prescribed drugs in the USA
Lithium Carbonate• Naturally occuring salt element(other drugs are synthetics)• Used to treat Bipolar disorder• Helps reduce mood swings
Anti-anxiety Drugs• Used to treat Anxiety disorders; slow nervous system• Depressives• Valium, Xanax• Side Effects – Drowsiness, Dependence
Electroconvulsive Therapy• “Shock Treatment”• Sent through brain• Treat severe depression, acute mania, schizophrenia• Not sure how it works• Theory – Induced seizures “prime” the brain, “knock loose” some transmitters
Psychosurgery• Drastic procedures, last resort• More common in past• Destroy part of brain to relieve symptoms• Example – Severed corpus callosum to relieve seizures
Prefrontal Lobotomy• A section of the frontal lobe is destroyed• Help control emotions• Side effects difficulty planning, apathy, lack creativity