Psychology notes ch. 16 - disorders - short


Published on

Published in: Health & Medicine
1 Comment
1 Like
  • Are there links to videos for this slide show? The Information is great but some of the slides seem to be lacking.
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Psychology notes ch. 16 - disorders - short

  1. 1. Chapter 16 – Psychological Disorders
  2. 2. What are disorders?• Abnormalities in - Mental Structure/Function AND/OR -Behavior
  3. 3. Disorders - Why? 1:00
  4. 4. Types/Categories• Organic Brain Syndromes (Caused by Damage)• Developmental Disorders (autism, retardation)• “Psychoses” – Schizophrenia, Mood Disorders (Bipolar)• “Neuroses” – Anxiety Disorders (Phobias, OCD, PTSD)• Somatoform Disorders (Ulcers)• Dissociative Disorders – D.I.D.• Personality Disorders – Antisocial Personality Disorder, Substances Abuse (problems with relationships)• Behavioral Disorders – Sleep Disorders, Turrets• General Problems  Seek Counseling (relationships)
  5. 5. Defining and Identifying Psychological Disorders – Normal vs. Abnormal• Deviation from Normality• Adjustment• Psychological Health
  6. 6. What is normal?• Accurate, Efficient Mental Function• Self-Awareness• Self-Control• Self-Esteem• Relationships• Productivity, Creativity• Not Deviant and maladaptive• Ego-Syntonic – bother others but not self• Ego-Dystonic – bothers self, maybe others also
  7. 7. Deviation from Normality• Maladaptive? Culture/Society? Values?
  8. 8. Adjustment – “Adaptiveness”• Ability to get along in the world physically, emotionally and socially.• Cultural Context• Behavior that might help adjust in one culture, situation might have opposite effect in another
  9. 9. Psychological HealthMedical Model – Assumptions…Psychological Disorders have “Natural” cause-Can be discovered with scientific methodNot Demonic Possession-Supernatural ModelNot Willful Behavior-Moral Model
  10. 10. Problem of Classification – an Example• Homosexuality• 052101c.html
  11. 11. DSM-IV – Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders• Categorize• Describe– Essential Features- Associated Features- Differential Diagnosis- Diagnostic Criteria
  12. 12. 5 Dimensions in DSM (Axises)• Axis I – Classify Current Symptoms into categories• Axis II – Developmental Disorders/Personality Traits• Axis III – Physical Disorders/Medical Conditions• Axis IV – Measurement of current stress level• Axis V – High level of adaptive functioning1. Social Relations2. Occupational Functioning3. Use of leisure time
  13. 13. Causes? Nature or Nurture?Diathesis Stress Model – biological factorsexist, must be triggered by environmentalstressors…
  14. 14. Section 2 – Anxiety Disorders• Generalized Anxiety Disorders• Phobic Disorders• Panic Disorder• Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder• Post-traumatic Stress Disorder
  15. 15. Generalized Anxiety Disorder• Anxiety – a vague, generalized apprehension or feeling that one is in danger
  16. 16. G.A.D. - Overview
  17. 17. Phobic Disorders• Phobia – an intense and irrational fear of particular object or situation
  18. 18. Fear of Clowns – 4 min
  19. 19. Panic Disorders• Panic Disorder – an extreme anxiety that manifests itself in the form of panic attacks
  20. 20. Panic Attack – Big Bang Theory – 2min
  21. 21. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder• Obsession – Constantly on your mind• Compulsions – Keep repeating behavior
  22. 22. OCD – 2 min 20 sec
  23. 23. Post-traumatic Stress Disorder• PTSD – disorder in which victims of traumatic events experience the original event in the form of dreams or flashbacks
  24. 24. PTSD – 3:30
  25. 25. Section 3 – Somatoform and Dissociative Disorders
  26. 26. Somatoform Disorders• Used to be called “hysteria” by Freud• “Physical symptoms for which there is no apparent physical cause• Two general types1. Conversion Disorders2. Hypochondriasis
  27. 27. Conversion Disorders• Changing emotional difficulties into a loss of specific voluntary body function• Subconsciously done• Reinforced by increased attention• Motor Deficits or Sensory Deficits• Rare
  28. 28. Hypochondriasis• Good health but intense worry about small problems being really big• Extensive doctor visits, second opinions, self diagnosis• From repressed emotions?• Get more reinforcement (positive attention)
  29. 29. Hypochondria – 4min
  30. 30. Hypochondria – Treatment – 4min
  31. 31. Dissociative Disorders• 3 General Types1. Dissociative Amnesia2. Dissociative Fugue3. Dissociative Identity Disorder (Multiple Personality Disorder)2 General Causes1. Witness Traumatic Events2. Childhood Abuse
  32. 32. Dissociative Disorder• a disorder in which a person experiences alterations in memory, identity, or consciousness.
  33. 33. Dissociative Amnesia• Inability to recall important personal events or information, usually associated with stress• Attempt to escape problems by blotting out• Remember general knowledge• Forget identity, where live/work
  34. 34. Dissociative Fugue (amnesia plus flight)• Person suddenly/unexpectedly travels away from home or work and is unable to recall past• Escape from unbearable conflict or anxiety• May establish new identity
  35. 35. Man with No Past – 4min
  36. 36. Dissociative Identity Disorder (D.I.D.)• Two or more personality states, each with own patterns of thinking and behaving• Host personality – primary identity present most of the time• Alters – alternative personalities• Switching – from one personality to others  brought on by anxiety
  37. 37. Sybil – 7min
  38. 38. Sybil – 8:30
  39. 39. Living with DID – 5min
  40. 40. Section 4: Schizophrenia and Mood Disorders
  41. 41. What is Schizophrenia• Includes positive and negative symptoms• Positive – add – Negative – take away• Type I  mostly positive symptoms-delusions, hallucinations, disorders of thoughts and behavior• Type II  mostly negative symptoms-flat affect (emotions), avolition (motivation), alogia (speech)
  42. 42. Schizophrenia - Defined• Disorders characterized by confused and disconnected thoughts, emotions, perceptions• Considered by many to be most severe disorder• Often a variety of symptoms present
  43. 43. Schizophrenia – 4:15
  44. 44. “January” – 4:00
  45. 45. Delusions• False beliefs that a person maintains in the face of contrary evidence• Grandeur – they are god, the President, the greatest man in the world, etc…• Persecution – everyone is out to get them• Control – belief that something/someone else controlling actions
  46. 46. Hallucinations• Perceptions with no direct external cause• Often take form of voices telling them what to do• May see things/people
  47. 47. Types of Schizophrenia• Catatonic – motor disturbances• Paranoid – preoccupied with delusions, people out to get them• Disorganized – incoherent language, inappropriate emotion, delusions, hallucinations• Undifferentiated – many symptoms• Remission – no current symptoms
  48. 48. CausesBiological Influences – 1% in population, 10% in familiesBiochemistry – imbalance in neurotransmitters (dopamine/serotonin)Family/interactions“Diathesis-stress model” – biological, needs stress triggers
  49. 49. Mood DisordersLong-lasting, severe  not just really sadBereavement  not necessarily depressionTypes –• Major Depressive Disorder• Bipolar Disorder• Season Affective Disorder
  50. 50. Major Depressive Disorder• Severe form of lowered mood, feelings of worthlessness, apathy, disinterested in pleasurable activities, intense sadness, hopelessness• 2+ weeks, can’t be due to bereavement (grieving)• Need 4 of following symptoms (consistently and higher in intensity) – problems eating, sleeping, thinking, focusing, making decisions, low energy, suicidal thoughts, feel worthless/guilty, lack of interest in enjoyable activities
  51. 51. Bipolar Disorder (Manic Depression)• Individual alternates between feelings of mania and depressionMania – little sleep, elation, confusion, delusions, distractibility, rac ing thoughts, overly optimisticDepressive – feel worthless, sinful, despair, failure, lethargy, unrespons iveness
  52. 52. Alonzo Spellman – 10min
  53. 53. Bipolar – 5min
  54. 54. Seasonal Affective Disorder• Depression during certain seasons,• increase sleep, eatingCauses• Melatonin?• Vitamin D?• Conditioning?• Social Learning?
  55. 55. Explaining mood disorders• Psychoanalytical• Humanistic• Behavioral• Cognitive• Biological• Sociocultural
  56. 56. Suicide and Mental Illness30,000 each yearMental illness correlated with suicideDealing with…1. Accurately assess individuals risk2. Help resolve immediate crisis3. Provide treatment to overcome feelings of despair
  57. 57. Section 5 – Personality Disorders and Drug Addiction• Lack of constraint on behavior by social rules and emotions
  58. 58. Personality Disorders• Maladaptive or inflexible ways of dealing with others and one’s environment
  59. 59. Personality Disorders• Clusters – Page 237 – Brain Book• Cluster A – Schizotypal, Paranoid, Schizoid• Cluster B – Antisocial, Borderline, Histrionic, Narcissistic• Cluster C – Avoidant, Dependent, Obsessive-CompulsiveObsessive-Compulsive, Schizoid, etc…are NOT OCD, Schizophrenia in this instance
  60. 60. Antisocial Personality Disorder• a personality disorder characterized by irresponsibility, shallow emotions, and lack of conscience.• Manipulate others, view others as objects, want instant gratification, lie, no remorse• “Sociopath”• Disorder in need of treatment?OR• Willful bad behavior in need of punishment
  61. 61. Drug Addiction• Alcohol – 7% of USA, 10 year less life expectancy, 50% of fatal car accidents, 1/3 of deaths from fires, falls, drowning
  62. 62. Psychological Dependence• Nervous, anxious without it• Think can’t perform without the drug
  63. 63. Addiction• Overwhelming, compulsive desire to obtain and use• Physical addiction = physical withdrawal symptoms
  64. 64. Tolerance• Physical adaptation to a drug so that a person needs an increased amount in order to produce original effect.
  65. 65. Withdrawal• the symptoms that occur after a person discontinues the use of a drug to which he or she has become addicted.
  66. 66. Alcoholism