Unit 4 – Learning and Cognitive           Processes Chapter 9 – Learning: Principles and Applications       Chapter 10 – M...
3 schools of thought regarding                learning• Classical Conditioning• Operant Conditioning• Social Learning• Som...
Classical Conditioning – Learning process inwhich associations are made between a natural       stimulus and a neutral sti...
Concepts in Classical Conditioning• Neutral Stimulus – a stimulus that does not initially elicit  any part of the uncondit...
Acquisition – the learning of a conditioned                 response
Generalization –responding to arange of similar  stimuli (in asimilar manner)
Discrimination –developing the    ability to     respond  differently to   similar but distinct stimuli
Extinction – thegradual loss of a   conditioned    response  Spontaneous Recovery – thereappearing of a   conditioned resp...
Classical Conditioning Applied to        Human Behavior
Taste Aversions – aclassically conditioneddislike of certain foods
Pavlov’s Bar – 1min30sec
Operant Conditioning• Learning in which a certain  action is reinforced or  punished, resulting in  corresponding increase...
Operant Conditioning
Operant Conditioning
Reinforcement – something thatfollows a response which increases the chance that the response will repeat
Skinner Box
Primary Reinforcer – in and of itself               reinforcingSecondary Reinforcer – can be used to get          a primar...
Schedules of Reinforcement – page 254                            • Variable                              Ratio            ...
Shaping – desired behavior is “molded” by firstrewarding anything that is similar, then requiring closer    approximations...
Aversive Control – measures ofconditioning which are perceived as   undesirable by the organism
Negative Reinforcement vs.  Punishment – they are not the samehttp://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/the-scientific-   fundam...
Punishment – Pro and Con
Social Learning – process of altering behavior by observing and imitating the behavior of others
Cognitive Learning – form of alteringbehavior that involves mental processes  and may result from observation or          ...
Latent Learning/Cognitive Maps• http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/goal-  posts/200907/planters-peanuts-pellets-food-play...
Learned Helplessness
Modeling - learning by    imitatingothers; copying    behavior
Modeling – Love and Logic – 2min
Behavior Modification            Systematic            application of            learning principles            to change ...
Behavior modification program – 1min
Token Economies – conditioningprocess which uses “tokens” (valueless objects) which can be exchanged for           valuabl...
Self-Control – conditioning can beused to regulate your own behavior –e.g. – 1 page, 1 video game level, etc…
Dual credit psychology notes   chapter 9 - learning(shortened for slide share)
Dual credit psychology notes   chapter 9 - learning(shortened for slide share)
Dual credit psychology notes   chapter 9 - learning(shortened for slide share)
Dual credit psychology notes   chapter 9 - learning(shortened for slide share)
Dual credit psychology notes   chapter 9 - learning(shortened for slide share)
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Dual credit psychology notes chapter 9 - learning(shortened for slide share)

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  • http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/goal-posts/200907/planters-peanuts-pellets-food-playing-time-and-passionPlanters Peanuts, Pellets of Food, Playing Time, and PassionHow rewards can bring out the best in us Published on July 14, 2009 by John Tauer, Ph.D. in Goal PostsWhen my son Jack was 9 months old, he had a favorite toy: The Exersaucer. This toy (pictured below with Jack, sans a full head of hair) had it all. It was like the Cadillac of toys for tots. Kids who couldn’t stand on their own were suspended in air and could rotate around to play with several different toys that stimulated their senses. The Exersaucer had a concave base so it could sway back and forth a bit, but would not tip over.Once Jack learned how to crawl, one of his favorite pastimes became crawling into the bowl-shaped base. He would hide there and scream for joy (he hadn’t yet realized that screaming rendered the hiding ineffective). One day, my friend Tom was over and Jack scurried onto the Exersaucer base. He played for a couple minutes, but then began to cry. Tom was raised in an authoritarian household where whining was not allowed, so it caught me off guard when he asked me why I didn’t help Jack out of the ExerSaucer. In Tom’s eyes, Jack was stuck, and unable to escape. As Jack screamed louder and louder, Tom looked at me quizzically, as if to say, “How can you let Jack suffer like that?”Now, as parents, we develop a pretty good sense of when our kids are in trouble and when they may be whining a bit. In fact, most parents comment that their children have different screams: the “HELP! I’m in trouble!” scream and the “I don’t like this – fix it for me” scream/whine. Jack’s whining in the Exersaucer struck me as more of the latter. After letting him struggle for a couple minutes, Tom asked me if I was I willing to concede that Jack was truly unable to escape the Exersaucer.I went into the kitchen and brought back a jar of Planters Peanuts. Jack loved shaking the jar, looking at the peanuts, and rolling the jar across the living room carpet. I showed Jack the peanuts and he squealed with delight. I then set them about five feet away from the Exersaucer. With no hesitation or trouble, Jack scurried out of the Exersaucer. He had successfully freed himself from the Alcatraz-esqueExerSaucer and was now playing with the Planter’s Peanuts.Although I had never tried this experiment with Jack before that day, I had a hunch it would work because I believed that he could crawl out of the Exersaucer, but that he simply was not sufficiently motivated to do so. Essentially, Tom and I were observing a difference between what Jack had learned and what he was motivated to do.Latent learningThis phenomenon, latent learning, occurs when an organism has learned a behavior, but is not motivated to engage in the behavior. Tolman and Honzik (1930) conducted a classic study of latent learning that involved rats navigating a maze. Half of the rats were rewarded with food when they reached the end of the maze and the other half of rats were not rewarded. After 10 days, the researchers continued rewarding (or not) some of the rats, whereas for other rats, the researchers changed the incentive (either adding a reward or making it unavailable). Thus, the four groups of rats were as follows:Group 1 – rewarded for all 22 trials of the studyGroup 2 – not rewarded at allGroup 3 – not rewarded for trials 1-10, but rewarded on trials 11-22Group 4 – rewarded on trials 1-10, but not rewarded on trials 11-22Not surprisingly, Group 1 made fewer errors running the maze than Group 2 due to the availability of the reward. Group 3 was the key condition, because Tolman and Honzik (1930) were able to monitor how quickly Group 3’s performance improved, and whether they had been learning in the absence of a reward. Almost immediately after receiving food, Group 3’s errors dropped to the level of Group 1. It appeared that the rats did know how to navigate their way through the maze all along, yet just like Jack in the Exersaucer, they weren’t sufficiently motivated to do so until a reward was present.Interestingly, Group 4’s errors increased quickly when the possibility of a reward was removed, again illustrating the motivational power of rewards. Below is a graph that depicts Tolman and Honzik’s results.Latent learning in sportsTwo years ago, our basketball team was coming off back-to-back conference championships and national tournament appearances. We had been consistently good for several years, but we were graduating five of our top six players, including multiple All-Americans. For several years, we had played 6-7 players the majority of the minutes during games. Typically, this resulted in those 6-7 players developing tremendous chemistry. The starters tended to play 35 minutes (out of 40) per game, regardless of how fatigued they may have been. By the end of the season, they were tired, and the other seven players were less enthused by practice because they felt they had little chance of earning more playing time. Thus, it was difficult to get players to exert the energy during late-season practices that we needed to continue improving throughout the season. That summer, we brought in a consultant to facilitate a series of coaches’ meetings to evaluate our program. One theme that came up consistently in our meetings was that in order to play harder in games, practice harder, and improve over the course of the season, we would have to play more players. This meant playing younger players who were not yet at the same level as veterans and trusting that over time, the team would reap the benefits.This would be a major change for us, but we surprised a lot of people by going 23-5 the first year with a roster of relatively inexperienced players. Last season, we went 30-1, and were ranked #1 in the nation in Division III for six consecutive weeks. Much of our success the past two seasons was due to having talented and unselfish players who worked exceptionally hard. We went from all five starters typically playing 30+ minutes per game to last year when our All-American guard averaged less than 28 minutes per game, thirteen players playing in most games, and ten of those players averaging more than 10 minutes per game.With this change in how many players saw the floor over the past two years, what struck me the most is how little effort we had to invest coaching players to work hard in practice. Rather than exhorting players to exert themselves during practice, they competed each day in practice like it was a game. They weren’t afraid of wearing themselves out for games, and the opportunity for 13 or more players to play in each game appeared to be a sufficient motivator for each player to bust his butt every day in practice. As coaches, we regularly commented on how enjoyable practices were because of the players’ effort, energy, and enthusiasm. Each player was motivated by multiple factors, including the opportunity to play, the team’s success, and the goal of winning a national championship (sadly, we came up one game short of the Final four, losing to the eventual National Champions).All organisms are pulled by desirable outcomes. We observed this with my son Jack, with Tolman’s rats, and with our basketball players at the University of St. Thomas. What is desirable to one may not be desirable to another (e.g., another child may be disinterested by peanuts, but motivated by the jingling of car keys). One of the keys to understanding what motivates a person is the identification of that individual’s goal. Each of us has different goals, and thus each of us responds differently depending on the reward or incentive. For some, the incentive of feeling good is powerful, for others it is money, for others it is feeling a connection to others. This is what makes the study of motivation both fascinating and complex.Whether it’s Planters Peanuts, pellets of food, or playing time, we all have unique pressure points that drive our behavior. Until next time, may you find your own and others’ motivational hot buttons as you strive for excellence!ReferencesTolman, E.C., & Honzik, C.H. (1930). Introduction and removal of reward and maze performance in rats. University of California Publications in Psychology, 4, 257-275.
  • http://www.docpotter.com/boclass-25helplessness.htmlIn a typical study matched pairs of dogs were divided into two groups, one where the dog could control what happened and one where it could do nothing. In the first situation, a naive dog was place in a room with an electric grid floor. This first situation was called "controllable" because the room also contained a puzzle. If the dog "solved" the puzzle, the shock stopped. In this example the puzzle was a lever, which when pushed, turned off the shock.Since the dog had never been in the room before and it had no knowledge of the shock it was about to receive, the dog was relaxed and friendly as it wagged its tail and wiggled its nose. However, when the electric floor was activated, the dog's demeanor changed dramatically. It jumped and yelped as it frantically searched for a way out. In the process the dog accidentally pushed the lever, causing the shock to stop -  a powerful negative win. Over the next couple of trials when the dog was put back in the room and the shock turned on, the dog learned very quickly to run to the lever and push it. The dog was highly motivated - albeit avoidance motivation - because the dog learned that it could do something to control its world.The dog in the "uncontrollable" group was placed in the same room with the electric floor, only this time there was no puzzle and there was nothing that the dog could do to turn off the shock. Just like the first dog, it ran around trying to find a way out. When the dog eventually learned that there was nothing that it could do it gave up, and laying down on the floor, it took the shock. The dog was not motivated because it learned that it was helpless.Later the second dog that had learned that it was helpless was put into the room with the puzzle but it made no effort to find a way out. Instead the dog just lay on the floor and took the shock. Even when the door was left wide open, the dog did not attempt to escape the shock. The dog could not seem to learn that the conditions had changed and that it was no longer helpless.To summarize, the second dog "learned" that it was helpless and stopped trying to get away. Its motivation to escape was extinguished or eliminated. In the process, dog exhibited a lot of negative emotions: first yelping and growling, later whimpering, and eventually just remaining motionless. Something happened that interfered with the dog's ability to learn when things changed and when it could do something. In effect, the dog burned out.Powerlessness at work can affect people in the same way. As you learn that there is nothing you can do you'll probably experience negative emotions, beginning with frustration and anger, later anxiety and guilt, and eventually depression and despair. In the process, motivation declines. When the conditions change you will probably find it hard to learn and continue acting helpless.Of course, scientists can't subject people to such experiments so we have no direct scientific data on the effects of powerlessness on human subjects. However, we can speculate that the battered-wife syndrome may be caused by learned helplessness, for example. If the woman believes that she is powerless before an abusive husband, she will probably act like the dog on the grid floor, taking the abuse and not running away when she has the opportunity. People in the ghetto who don't avail themselves of opportunities, such as educational programs, may fail to do so not because of laziness, but because they have learned that they are helpless and, as a result cannot act. Homeless people who are skilled and were once securely employed but now areunable to hold a job, may also be victims of learned helplessness. People who are chronically depressed may have become so as a result of uncontrollable situations. For example, there is a statistic claiming that more Vietnam Vets committed suicide than were killed in the war. Perhaps they were suffering from burnout. Remember the yellow ribbons and the people held hostage over 400 hundred days in Iran? A large percentage of the hostages developed chronic depression. Perhaps it was learned helplessness.In his research, Seligman discovered that animals who learn to be helpless have little resistance to adverse situations. They often die in as few as ten minutes when placed in a survival situation, whereas animals who have learned mastery continue fighting to survive hours later. This research suggests learned helplessness is literally life-threatening. Research suggests it even triggers a biological suicide mechanism. In some cases biological functions simply slow down or cease; other studies indicate that the body may develop a terminal disease. This notion has been supported by research with cancer patients that suggested that people who are depressed and feel like victims were more likely to get cancer.An uncontrollable situation can be harmful without being physically painful, however. Feeling helpless can do serious damage to motivation in any situation, even those filled with luxury and privilege. An example is the poor little rich boy whose daddy does everything for him.  As a kid he breaks a window with a ball, and daddy fixes it.  He gets ho hum grades in school but gets into college anyway because daddy gave a big donation. After graduation he gets a job with a big salary and a corner office in daddy's firm.Surprisingly, the poor little rich boy's situation is similar to the unhappy worker suffering under a hypercritical boss.  While the worker is overloaded with criticism and the rich boy has an overabundance of goodies, both lack a sense of control. Neither feel they can influence what happens to them. Seligman emphasizes in his research on learned helplessness that it is not the quality of the situation that causes feelings of helplessness and depression. Even though we tend to think that the cause is punitive circumstances, situations filled with rewards can also lead to the same debilitating learned helplessness and depression when the person does not have to perform to get those rewards. Seligman describes research with rats and pigeons in which they could choose between getting food free and having to make certain responses to get the same food. The rats and pigeons choose to work!
  • Dual credit psychology notes chapter 9 - learning(shortened for slide share)

    1. 1. Unit 4 – Learning and Cognitive Processes Chapter 9 – Learning: Principles and Applications Chapter 10 – Memory and Thought Chapter 11 – Thinking and Language Chapter 12 – Motivation and Emotion
    2. 2. 3 schools of thought regarding learning• Classical Conditioning• Operant Conditioning• Social Learning• Some think it is all one way• In reality, the vast majority of learning involves elements of all 3 types
    3. 3. Classical Conditioning – Learning process inwhich associations are made between a natural stimulus and a neutral stimulus
    4. 4. Concepts in Classical Conditioning• Neutral Stimulus – a stimulus that does not initially elicit any part of the unconditioned response• Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) – an event that elicits a certain predictable response typically without previous training• Unconditioned Response (UCR) – an organism’s automatic (e.g. “Natural”) reaction to a stimulus• Conditioned Stimulus (CS) – A once-neutral event that elicits a given response after a period of training in which it has been paired with an unconditioned stimulus• Conditioned Response (CR) – the learned reaction to a conditioned stimulus
    5. 5. Acquisition – the learning of a conditioned response
    6. 6. Generalization –responding to arange of similar stimuli (in asimilar manner)
    7. 7. Discrimination –developing the ability to respond differently to similar but distinct stimuli
    8. 8. Extinction – thegradual loss of a conditioned response Spontaneous Recovery – thereappearing of a conditioned response when the CS ispresented again
    9. 9. Classical Conditioning Applied to Human Behavior
    10. 10. Taste Aversions – aclassically conditioneddislike of certain foods
    11. 11. Pavlov’s Bar – 1min30sec
    12. 12. Operant Conditioning• Learning in which a certain action is reinforced or punished, resulting in corresponding increases or decreases in occurrence
    13. 13. Operant Conditioning
    14. 14. Operant Conditioning
    15. 15. Reinforcement – something thatfollows a response which increases the chance that the response will repeat
    16. 16. Skinner Box
    17. 17. Primary Reinforcer – in and of itself reinforcingSecondary Reinforcer – can be used to get a primary reinforcer
    18. 18. Schedules of Reinforcement – page 254 • Variable Ratio • Fixed Ratio • Variable Interval • Fixed Interval
    19. 19. Shaping – desired behavior is “molded” by firstrewarding anything that is similar, then requiring closer approximations to the desired behavior before receiving a reward” Chaining – tying parts of learning together into a response chain to get to the desired end-point
    20. 20. Aversive Control – measures ofconditioning which are perceived as undesirable by the organism
    21. 21. Negative Reinforcement vs. Punishment – they are not the samehttp://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/the-scientific- fundamentalist/201001/common-misconceptions-about-science-vi- negative-reinforcem
    22. 22. Punishment – Pro and Con
    23. 23. Social Learning – process of altering behavior by observing and imitating the behavior of others
    24. 24. Cognitive Learning – form of alteringbehavior that involves mental processes and may result from observation or imitation
    25. 25. Latent Learning/Cognitive Maps• http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/goal- posts/200907/planters-peanuts-pellets-food-playing- time-and-passion
    26. 26. Learned Helplessness
    27. 27. Modeling - learning by imitatingothers; copying behavior
    28. 28. Modeling – Love and Logic – 2min
    29. 29. Behavior Modification Systematic application of learning principles to change people’s actions and feelings
    30. 30. Behavior modification program – 1min
    31. 31. Token Economies – conditioningprocess which uses “tokens” (valueless objects) which can be exchanged for valuable rewards
    32. 32. Self-Control – conditioning can beused to regulate your own behavior –e.g. – 1 page, 1 video game level, etc…

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