Dual credit psychology notes   chapter 6 - brain and body
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Dual credit psychology notes chapter 6 - brain and body Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Unit 3 – Workings of Mind and Body
    Chapter 6 – Body and Behavior
    Chapter 7 – Altered States of Consciousness
    Chapter 8 – Sensation and Perception
  • 2. Interesting Stats on Brain
    100 billion cells, each with thousands of connections (up to 100,000).
    1 cubic inch=10,000 miles of fibers, 100 million cells
    1300 -1400 grams
    350 – 400 grams
    -adult versus newborn
    brain
  • 3. The Nervous System
  • 4. Key Concepts
    Brain
    Sensory
    Neuron
    Motor
    Neuron
    Skin receptors
    Interneuron
    Muscle
    Nervous systems function in sensory input, integration, and motor output.
    The nervous system is composed of neurons and supporting cells.
    Membrane potentials arise from differences in ion concentrations between a cell’s contents and the extracellular fluid.
    An action potential is an all-or-none change in the membrane potential.
  • 5. Key Concepts
    Action potentials travel along an axon because they are self-propagating.
    Chemical or electrical communication between cells occurs at synapses.
    One neurotransmitter can produce different effects on different types of cells.
  • 6. P
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    Central Nervous System
    Peripheral Nervous System
    Key Concepts
    The symmetry of the nervous system is correlated with body symmetry.
    Vertebrate nervous systems are highly centralized and cephalized.
    The vertebrate peripheral nervous system has several components differing in organization and function.
  • 7. Key Concepts
    The brainstem conducts data and controls automatic activities essential for survival.
    The cerebellum controls movement and balance.
    The thalamus and hypothalamus are prominent integrating centers of the forebrain.
    The cerebrum contains the most sophisticated integrating centers.
  • 8. Functions of Nervous Systems
  • 9. Cells of the Nervous System
    Neurons
    • Functional unit of the NS
    • 10. Transmit signals from one location to another
    • 11. Structure
    • 12. Large cell body
    • 13. Processes that conduct signals
    • 14. Dendrites: tips  neuron
    • 15. Axons: neuron  tips
    Enclosed by myelin sheath
    End in synaptic terminals that release neurotransmitters
  • 16. The Dendrite Song!
    Axons send outNeurotransmittersTo the dendrites all aroundAcross the synapseJumps the impulseNew ideas can now abound.
    StimulationIs what the brain needsTo make dendrites stretch and grow. New connectionsMake us smarterIn what we think and what we know.
    Use your dendrites,Use your dendrites,To connect throughout your brainTake in info, analyze it,Grow some new onesUnrestrained.
    (sung to the tune of "Clementine“)
    Use your dendrites,Use your dendrites,To connect throughout your brain.Take in info, analyze it,Grow some new onesUnrestrained.
  • 17. How are neurons organized? (158)
    Three types of neurons
    Afferent (Sensory) neurons
    Interneurons (Central Nervous System)
    Efferent (Motor) neurons
    • Neural circuits form from any combination of two or more of these
    • 18. Convergent: (many to one)
    • 19. Divergent: (one to many)
    • 20. Reverberating: (circular)
    • 21. Simplest: Sensory and motor neurons – reflex arc
  • “The Reflex Arc”
  • 22. Neurotransmitters: crossing the gap between neurons
    Chemicals that cross the synapse to relay the impulse to another neuron or an effector
    Examples: acetylcholine, norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin, endorphins, amino acids, neuropeptides, gases
  • 23. Major Divisions of Nervous System
    Central N.S.
    Brain
    Brainstem
    Spinal Cord
    Peripheral N.S.
    Somatic N.S.
    Autonomic
    -Sympathetic
    -Parasympathetic
  • 24. Central Nervous System (CNS)
    Cephalized
    Centralized
    Integration and processing of information
    White matter – axons in the CNS
    Gray matter – cell bodies, dendrites, unmyelinated axons
    Central canal of the spinal cord
    Ventricles of the brain
    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
    Meninges– protective connective tissue
  • 25. PNS
    Transmits information to and from the CNS
    Components
    Both sensory and motor functions
    Paired cranial nerves (12)
    Paired spinal nerves (31)
    Ganglia
    Motor division
    Somatic nervous system
    Voluntary - signals to and from skeletal muscles
    Respond to external stimuli
    Autonomic nervous system
    Involuntary - Internal environment, smooth and cardiac muscles
    Sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions
  • 26. Actions of the parasympathetic and sympathetic divisions of the Autonomic Nervous System (156-158)
    Sympathetic division
    Stimulation
    Flight/Fight
    Energy generation
    Parasympathetic division
    Calming
    Rest and repair
    Often have antagonistic actions
    Cooperate to maintain homeostasis
  • 27. Structure and function of the vertebrate brain
  • 28.
  • 29. Integrating centers in the cerebrum
    Right and left cerebral hemispheres
    Cerebral cortex
    Highly developed and convoluted in mammals
    Lobes with sensory areas and association areas, frontal lobe with motor cortex
    Basal nuclei – planning and learning movement sequences
  • 30. Other roles of the cerebral cortex
    Language and speech
    Broca’s area
    Wernicke’s area
    Emotions
    Limbic system – amygdala, hippocampus, and olfactory bulb
    Laughing, crying, aggression, feeding, and sexuality
    Memory and learning
    Short-term: frontal lobe
    Long-term: amygdala and hippocampus
    Neurons may make new connections
    Consciousness
    Emergent property based on activity in many areas of the cortex
  • 31. 3 Divisions of the Brain
    Hindbrain – attached to spinal cord, automatic functions (breathing, heartbeat) and some voluntary (walking, facial movements)
    Midbrain – relay station b/t hindbrain/forebrain
    Forebrain – largest/most complex region
    -includes cerebrum – center for complex thought
  • 32.
  • 33. Limbic System
    Helps regulate memory, aggression, fear, hunger, and thirst
    Includes Hypothalamus, Hippocampus, and Amygdala
  • 34. A. Hypothalamus
    Regulates eating, drinking, body temperature, libido, and the “fight or flight” reaction
  • 35. B. Hippocampus
    Part of the limbic system that helps us form new memories
    Looks like a seahorse
    Hippo is Greek for “horse.”
    “If you saw a hippo on campus, you’d never forget it!”
  • 36.
  • 37. C. Amygdala
    Controls emotional responses such as fear and anger
    Damage to this area could result in violent, aggressive behavior
  • 38. II. Cerebral Cortex
    • The body’s ultimate control and information processing center
  • A. Corpus Callosum
    Connects the two brain hemispheres
    Is sometimes cut to prevent seizures
    Video: “Severed Corpus Callosum” – scroll over and hit play
  • 39. B. The Four Lobes (162)
    Frontal, Parietal, Occipital, and Temporal
  • 40. 1. Frontal Lobes
    Located just behind the forehead
    Involved in personality, making plans and judgments
  • 41. 2. Parietal Lobes
    Involved in making associations
    Located behind the frontal lobes
  • 42. 3. Occipital Lobes
    The primary visual processing area
    Located in the back of the head
    Damage to this area could result in loss of vision
  • 43. 4. Temporal Lobes
    Auditory (sound) information is first processed here
    Located above the ears
  • 44.
  • 45. Cerebral Cortex
  • 46. Cerebral Cortex
  • 47. Cerebral Cortex
  • 48. Cerebral Cortex
  • 49.
  • 50. III. Hemispheric Differences
  • 51. A. Left Hemisphere
    Spoken language is one of the clearest differences between the two hemispheres.
    For most people, language functions are in the left hemisphere.
  • 52. 1. Broca’s Area
    Located in the frontal lobe, usually in the left hemisphere
    Responsible for the muscle movements of speech
    Damage to this area causes problems in expressing thoughts in spoken language
  • 53. PET Scan of Broca’s Area
  • 54.
  • 55. Broca’s Area
    This is the brain of “Tal” from whom Broca discovered the area for speech. Note the damage to Broca’s Area.
  • 56. 2. Wernicke’s Area
    Located in the temporal lobe (usually on the left side)
    Gives us the ability to understand what is said to us
  • 57.
  • 58. PET Scan of Wernicke’s Area
  • 59. B. Right Hemisphere
    Spatial skills - being able to perceive or organize things in a given space, judge distance, etc.
    Relationships and emotions
  • 60. Left Brain: language, math, reasoning
    Right Brain: emotion, relationships, music
  • 61. C. Plasticity
    The ability of the brain tissue to take on new functions
    Greatest in childhood
    Important if parts of the brain are damaged or destroyed
  • 62. Methods of Studying Brain
    Recording
    Stimulation
    Lesions
    Accidents
    Images
  • 63. IV. Imaging Techniques
    CAT Scan: X-rays taken from different angles of the brain
    MRI: computer generated images of soft tissue in the brain
    EEG: electrodes on the scalp measure waves of electrical activity in the brain
    PET: a visual display of brain activity based on glucose (blood sugar)
  • 64. Endocrine System
  • 65. Pituitary Gland-regulates growth and water and salt metabolism
  • 66. Thyroid Gland-Controls the metabolic rate
  • 67. Sex GlandsTestes (male)Ovaries (female)
    Adrenal Glands-Regulate carbohydrate and salt metabolism-Prepares the body for action
  • 68. Heredity and Environment
    Genes and Behavior
    Heredity – Genetic transmission of characteristics from parents to their offspring
    Nature vs. Nurture Debate
    Twin Studies
    Viewed as the “Gold Mine” of the Nature vs. Nurture debate