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Dual credit psychology notes   chapter 6 - brain and body
Dual credit psychology notes   chapter 6 - brain and body
Dual credit psychology notes   chapter 6 - brain and body
Dual credit psychology notes   chapter 6 - brain and body
Dual credit psychology notes   chapter 6 - brain and body
Dual credit psychology notes   chapter 6 - brain and body
Dual credit psychology notes   chapter 6 - brain and body
Dual credit psychology notes   chapter 6 - brain and body
Dual credit psychology notes   chapter 6 - brain and body
Dual credit psychology notes   chapter 6 - brain and body
Dual credit psychology notes   chapter 6 - brain and body
Dual credit psychology notes   chapter 6 - brain and body
Dual credit psychology notes   chapter 6 - brain and body
Dual credit psychology notes   chapter 6 - brain and body
Dual credit psychology notes   chapter 6 - brain and body
Dual credit psychology notes   chapter 6 - brain and body
Dual credit psychology notes   chapter 6 - brain and body
Dual credit psychology notes   chapter 6 - brain and body
Dual credit psychology notes   chapter 6 - brain and body
Dual credit psychology notes   chapter 6 - brain and body
Dual credit psychology notes   chapter 6 - brain and body
Dual credit psychology notes   chapter 6 - brain and body
Dual credit psychology notes   chapter 6 - brain and body
Dual credit psychology notes   chapter 6 - brain and body
Dual credit psychology notes   chapter 6 - brain and body
Dual credit psychology notes   chapter 6 - brain and body
Dual credit psychology notes   chapter 6 - brain and body
Dual credit psychology notes   chapter 6 - brain and body
Dual credit psychology notes   chapter 6 - brain and body
Dual credit psychology notes   chapter 6 - brain and body
Dual credit psychology notes   chapter 6 - brain and body
Dual credit psychology notes   chapter 6 - brain and body
Dual credit psychology notes   chapter 6 - brain and body
Dual credit psychology notes   chapter 6 - brain and body
Dual credit psychology notes   chapter 6 - brain and body
Dual credit psychology notes   chapter 6 - brain and body
Dual credit psychology notes   chapter 6 - brain and body
Dual credit psychology notes   chapter 6 - brain and body
Dual credit psychology notes   chapter 6 - brain and body
Dual credit psychology notes   chapter 6 - brain and body
Dual credit psychology notes   chapter 6 - brain and body
Dual credit psychology notes   chapter 6 - brain and body
Dual credit psychology notes   chapter 6 - brain and body
Dual credit psychology notes   chapter 6 - brain and body
Dual credit psychology notes   chapter 6 - brain and body
Dual credit psychology notes   chapter 6 - brain and body
Dual credit psychology notes   chapter 6 - brain and body
Dual credit psychology notes   chapter 6 - brain and body
Dual credit psychology notes   chapter 6 - brain and body
Dual credit psychology notes   chapter 6 - brain and body
Dual credit psychology notes   chapter 6 - brain and body
Dual credit psychology notes   chapter 6 - brain and body
Dual credit psychology notes   chapter 6 - brain and body
Dual credit psychology notes   chapter 6 - brain and body
Dual credit psychology notes   chapter 6 - brain and body
Dual credit psychology notes   chapter 6 - brain and body
Dual credit psychology notes   chapter 6 - brain and body
Dual credit psychology notes   chapter 6 - brain and body
Dual credit psychology notes   chapter 6 - brain and body
Dual credit psychology notes   chapter 6 - brain and body
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Dual credit psychology notes chapter 6 - brain and body

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  • 1. Unit 3 – Workings of Mind and Body<br />Chapter 6 – Body and Behavior<br />Chapter 7 – Altered States of Consciousness<br />Chapter 8 – Sensation and Perception<br />
  • 2. Interesting Stats on Brain<br />100 billion cells, each with thousands of connections (up to 100,000).<br />1 cubic inch=10,000 miles of fibers, 100 million cells<br />1300 -1400 grams <br />350 – 400 grams<br />-adult versus newborn <br />brain<br />
  • 3. The Nervous System<br />
  • 4. Key Concepts<br />Brain<br />Sensory<br />Neuron<br />Motor<br />Neuron<br />Skin receptors<br />Interneuron<br />Muscle<br />Nervous systems function in sensory input, integration, and motor output.<br />The nervous system is composed of neurons and supporting cells.<br />Membrane potentials arise from differences in ion concentrations between a cell’s contents and the extracellular fluid.<br />An action potential is an all-or-none change in the membrane potential.<br />
  • 5. Key Concepts<br />Action potentials travel along an axon because they are self-propagating.<br />Chemical or electrical communication between cells occurs at synapses.<br />One neurotransmitter can produce different effects on different types of cells.<br />
  • 6. P<br />e<br />r<br />i<br />p<br />h<br />e<br />r<br />a<br />l<br />N<br />e<br />r<br />v<br />o<br />u<br />s<br />S<br />y<br />s<br />t<br />e<br />m<br />S<br />k<br />e<br />l<br />e<br />t<br />a<br />l<br />A<br />u<br />t<br />o<br />n<br />o<br />m<br />i<br />c<br />(<br />S<br />o<br />m<br />a<br />t<br />i<br />c<br />)<br />S<br />y<br />m<br />p<br />a<br />t<br />h<br />e<br />t<br />i<br />c<br />P<br />a<br />r<br />a<br />s<br />y<br />m<br />p<br />a<br />t<br />h<br />e<br />t<br />i<br />c<br />Central Nervous System <br />Peripheral Nervous System<br />Key Concepts<br />The symmetry of the nervous system is correlated with body symmetry.<br />Vertebrate nervous systems are highly centralized and cephalized.<br />The vertebrate peripheral nervous system has several components differing in organization and function.<br />
  • 7. Key Concepts<br />The brainstem conducts data and controls automatic activities essential for survival.<br />The cerebellum controls movement and balance.<br />The thalamus and hypothalamus are prominent integrating centers of the forebrain.<br />The cerebrum contains the most sophisticated integrating centers.<br />
  • 8. Functions of Nervous Systems<br />
  • 9. Cells of the Nervous System<br />Neurons<br /><ul><li>Functional unit of the NS
  • 10. Transmit signals from one location to another
  • 11. Structure
  • 12. Large cell body
  • 13. Processes that conduct signals
  • 14. Dendrites: tips  neuron
  • 15. Axons: neuron  tips</li></ul>Enclosed by myelin sheath<br />End in synaptic terminals that release neurotransmitters<br />
  • 16. The Dendrite Song!<br />Axons send outNeurotransmittersTo the dendrites all aroundAcross the synapseJumps the impulseNew ideas can now abound. <br />StimulationIs what the brain needsTo make dendrites stretch and grow. New connectionsMake us smarterIn what we think and what we know. <br />Use your dendrites,Use your dendrites,To connect throughout your brainTake in info, analyze it,Grow some new onesUnrestrained.<br />(sung to the tune of "Clementine“)<br />Use your dendrites,Use your dendrites,To connect throughout your brain.Take in info, analyze it,Grow some new onesUnrestrained. <br />
  • 17. How are neurons organized? (158)<br />Three types of neurons<br />Afferent (Sensory) neurons<br />Interneurons (Central Nervous System)<br />Efferent (Motor) neurons<br /><ul><li>Neural circuits form from any combination of two or more of these
  • 18. Convergent: (many to one)
  • 19. Divergent: (one to many)
  • 20. Reverberating: (circular)
  • 21. Simplest: Sensory and motor neurons – reflex arc</li></li></ul><li>“The Reflex Arc”<br />
  • 22. Neurotransmitters: crossing the gap between neurons<br />Chemicals that cross the synapse to relay the impulse to another neuron or an effector<br />Examples: acetylcholine, norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin, endorphins, amino acids, neuropeptides, gases<br />
  • 23. Major Divisions of Nervous System<br />Central N.S.<br />Brain<br />Brainstem<br />Spinal Cord<br />Peripheral N.S.<br />Somatic N.S.<br />Autonomic<br /> -Sympathetic<br /> -Parasympathetic<br />
  • 24. Central Nervous System (CNS)<br />Cephalized<br />Centralized<br />Integration and processing of information<br />White matter – axons in the CNS<br />Gray matter – cell bodies, dendrites, unmyelinated axons<br />Central canal of the spinal cord<br />Ventricles of the brain<br />Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)<br />Meninges– protective connective tissue<br />
  • 25. PNS<br />Transmits information to and from the CNS<br />Components<br />Both sensory and motor functions<br />Paired cranial nerves (12)<br />Paired spinal nerves (31)<br />Ganglia<br />Motor division<br />Somatic nervous system<br />Voluntary - signals to and from skeletal muscles<br />Respond to external stimuli<br />Autonomic nervous system<br />Involuntary - Internal environment, smooth and cardiac muscles<br />Sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions<br />
  • 26. Actions of the parasympathetic and sympathetic divisions of the Autonomic Nervous System (156-158)<br />Sympathetic division<br />Stimulation<br />Flight/Fight<br />Energy generation<br />Parasympathetic division<br />Calming<br />Rest and repair<br />Often have antagonistic actions<br />Cooperate to maintain homeostasis<br />
  • 27. Structure and function of the vertebrate brain<br />
  • 28.
  • 29. Integrating centers in the cerebrum<br />Right and left cerebral hemispheres<br />Cerebral cortex<br />Highly developed and convoluted in mammals<br />Lobes with sensory areas and association areas, frontal lobe with motor cortex<br />Basal nuclei – planning and learning movement sequences<br />
  • 30. Other roles of the cerebral cortex<br />Language and speech<br />Broca’s area<br />Wernicke’s area<br />Emotions<br />Limbic system – amygdala, hippocampus, and olfactory bulb<br />Laughing, crying, aggression, feeding, and sexuality<br />Memory and learning<br />Short-term: frontal lobe<br />Long-term: amygdala and hippocampus<br />Neurons may make new connections<br />Consciousness<br />Emergent property based on activity in many areas of the cortex<br />
  • 31. 3 Divisions of the Brain<br />Hindbrain – attached to spinal cord, automatic functions (breathing, heartbeat) and some voluntary (walking, facial movements)<br />Midbrain – relay station b/t hindbrain/forebrain<br />Forebrain – largest/most complex region<br /> -includes cerebrum – center for complex thought<br />
  • 32.
  • 33. Limbic System<br />Helps regulate memory, aggression, fear, hunger, and thirst<br />Includes Hypothalamus, Hippocampus, and Amygdala<br />
  • 34. A. Hypothalamus<br />Regulates eating, drinking, body temperature, libido, and the “fight or flight” reaction<br />
  • 35. B. Hippocampus<br />Part of the limbic system that helps us form new memories <br />Looks like a seahorse<br />Hippo is Greek for “horse.”<br />“If you saw a hippo on campus, you’d never forget it!”<br />
  • 36.
  • 37. C. Amygdala<br />Controls emotional responses such as fear and anger <br />Damage to this area could result in violent, aggressive behavior<br />
  • 38. II. Cerebral Cortex<br /><ul><li>The body’s ultimate control and information processing center</li></li></ul><li>A. Corpus Callosum<br />Connects the two brain hemispheres <br />Is sometimes cut to prevent seizures<br />Video: “Severed Corpus Callosum” – scroll over and hit play<br />
  • 39. B. The Four Lobes (162)<br />Frontal, Parietal, Occipital, and Temporal<br />
  • 40. 1. Frontal Lobes<br />Located just behind the forehead<br />Involved in personality, making plans and judgments<br />
  • 41. 2. Parietal Lobes<br />Involved in making associations<br />Located behind the frontal lobes<br />
  • 42. 3. Occipital Lobes<br />The primary visual processing area<br />Located in the back of the head<br />Damage to this area could result in loss of vision<br />
  • 43. 4. Temporal Lobes<br />Auditory (sound) information is first processed here<br />Located above the ears<br />
  • 44.
  • 45. Cerebral Cortex<br />
  • 46. Cerebral Cortex<br />
  • 47. Cerebral Cortex<br />
  • 48. Cerebral Cortex<br />
  • 49.
  • 50. III. Hemispheric Differences<br />
  • 51. A. Left Hemisphere<br />Spoken language is one of the clearest differences between the two hemispheres.<br />For most people, language functions are in the left hemisphere.<br />
  • 52. 1. Broca’s Area<br />Located in the frontal lobe, usually in the left hemisphere<br />Responsible for the muscle movements of speech<br />Damage to this area causes problems in expressing thoughts in spoken language<br />
  • 53. PET Scan of Broca’s Area <br />
  • 54.
  • 55. Broca’s Area<br />This is the brain of “Tal” from whom Broca discovered the area for speech. Note the damage to Broca’s Area.<br />
  • 56. 2. Wernicke’s Area<br />Located in the temporal lobe (usually on the left side)<br />Gives us the ability to understand what is said to us<br />
  • 57.
  • 58. PET Scan of Wernicke’s Area<br />
  • 59. B. Right Hemisphere<br />Spatial skills - being able to perceive or organize things in a given space, judge distance, etc.<br />Relationships and emotions<br />
  • 60. Left Brain: language, math, reasoning<br />Right Brain: emotion, relationships, music<br />
  • 61. C. Plasticity<br />The ability of the brain tissue to take on new functions<br />Greatest in childhood<br />Important if parts of the brain are damaged or destroyed<br />
  • 62. Methods of Studying Brain<br />Recording<br />Stimulation<br />Lesions<br />Accidents<br />Images<br />
  • 63. IV. Imaging Techniques<br />CAT Scan: X-rays taken from different angles of the brain<br />MRI: computer generated images of soft tissue in the brain<br />EEG: electrodes on the scalp measure waves of electrical activity in the brain<br />PET: a visual display of brain activity based on glucose (blood sugar)<br />
  • 64. Endocrine System<br />
  • 65. Pituitary Gland-regulates growth and water and salt metabolism<br />
  • 66. Thyroid Gland-Controls the metabolic rate<br />
  • 67. Sex GlandsTestes (male)Ovaries (female)<br />Adrenal Glands-Regulate carbohydrate and salt metabolism-Prepares the body for action<br />
  • 68. Heredity and Environment<br />Genes and Behavior<br />Heredity – Genetic transmission of characteristics from parents to their offspring<br />Nature vs. Nurture Debate<br />Twin Studies<br />Viewed as the “Gold Mine” of the Nature vs. Nurture debate<br />

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