Unit 3 – Workings of Mind and Body<br />Chapter 6 – Body and Behavior<br />Chapter 7 – Altered States of Consciousness<br ...
Interesting Stats on Brain<br />100 billion cells, each with thousands of connections (up to 100,000).<br />1 cubic inch=1...
The Nervous System<br />
Key Concepts<br />Brain<br />Sensory<br />Neuron<br />Motor<br />Neuron<br />Skin receptors<br />Interneuron<br />Muscle<b...
Key Concepts<br />Action potentials travel along an axon because they are self-propagating.<br />Chemical or electrical co...
P<br />e<br />r<br />i<br />p<br />h<br />e<br />r<br />a<br />l<br />N<br />e<br />r<br />v<br />o<br />u<br />s<br />S<b...
Key Concepts<br />The brainstem conducts data and controls automatic activities essential for survival.<br />The cerebellu...
Functions of Nervous Systems<br />
Cells of the Nervous System<br />Neurons<br /><ul><li>Functional unit of the NS
Transmit signals from one location to another
Structure
Large cell body
Processes that conduct signals
Dendrites: tips  neuron
Axons: neuron  tips</li></ul>Enclosed by myelin sheath<br />End in synaptic terminals that release neurotransmitters<br />
The Dendrite Song!<br />Axons send outNeurotransmittersTo the dendrites all aroundAcross the synapseJumps the impulseNew i...
How are neurons organized? (158)<br />Three types of neurons<br />Afferent (Sensory) neurons<br />Interneurons (Central Ne...
Convergent: (many to one)
Divergent: (one to many)
Reverberating: (circular)
Simplest: Sensory and motor neurons – reflex arc</li></li></ul><li>“The Reflex Arc”<br />
Neurotransmitters: crossing the gap between neurons<br />Chemicals that cross the synapse to relay the impulse to another ...
Major Divisions of Nervous System<br />Central N.S.<br />Brain<br />Brainstem<br />Spinal Cord<br />Peripheral N.S.<br />S...
Central Nervous System (CNS)<br />Cephalized<br />Centralized<br />Integration and processing of information<br />White ma...
PNS<br />Transmits information to and from the CNS<br />Components<br />Both sensory and motor functions<br />Paired crani...
Actions of the parasympathetic and sympathetic divisions of the Autonomic Nervous System (156-158)<br />Sympathetic divisi...
Structure and function of the vertebrate brain<br />
Integrating centers in the cerebrum<br />Right and left cerebral hemispheres<br />Cerebral cortex<br />Highly developed an...
Other roles of the cerebral cortex<br />Language and speech<br />Broca’s area<br />Wernicke’s area<br />Emotions<br />Limb...
3 Divisions of the Brain<br />Hindbrain – attached to spinal cord, automatic functions (breathing, heartbeat) and some vol...
Limbic System<br />Helps regulate memory, aggression, fear, hunger, and thirst<br />Includes Hypothalamus, Hippocampus, an...
A. Hypothalamus<br />Regulates eating, drinking, body temperature, libido, and the “fight or flight” reaction<br />
B. Hippocampus<br />Part of the limbic system that helps us form new memories <br />Looks like a seahorse<br />Hippo is Gr...
C. Amygdala<br />Controls emotional responses such as fear and anger <br />Damage to this area could result in violent, ag...
II. Cerebral Cortex<br /><ul><li>The body’s ultimate control and information processing center</li></li></ul><li>A. Corpus...
B. The Four Lobes (162)<br />Frontal, Parietal, Occipital, and Temporal<br />
1.  Frontal Lobes<br />Located just behind the forehead<br />Involved in personality, making plans and judgments<br />
2.  Parietal Lobes<br />Involved in making associations<br />Located behind the frontal lobes<br />
3.  Occipital Lobes<br />The primary visual processing area<br />Located in the back of the head<br />Damage to this area ...
4.  Temporal Lobes<br />Auditory (sound) information is first processed here<br />Located above the ears<br />
Cerebral Cortex<br />
Cerebral Cortex<br />
Cerebral Cortex<br />
Cerebral Cortex<br />
III. Hemispheric Differences<br />
A. Left Hemisphere<br />Spoken language is one of the clearest differences between the two hemispheres.<br />For most peop...
1.  Broca’s Area<br />Located in the frontal lobe, usually in the left hemisphere<br />Responsible for the muscle movement...
PET Scan of Broca’s Area <br />
Broca’s Area<br />This is the brain of “Tal” from whom Broca discovered the area for speech.               Note the damage...
2.  Wernicke’s Area<br />Located in the temporal lobe (usually on the left side)<br />Gives us the ability to understand w...
PET Scan of Wernicke’s Area<br />
B. Right Hemisphere<br />Spatial skills - being able to perceive or organize things in a given space, judge distance, etc....
Left Brain:  language, math, reasoning<br />Right Brain: emotion, relationships, music<br />
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Dual credit psychology notes chapter 6 - brain and body

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Dual credit psychology notes chapter 6 - brain and body

  1. 1. Unit 3 – Workings of Mind and Body<br />Chapter 6 – Body and Behavior<br />Chapter 7 – Altered States of Consciousness<br />Chapter 8 – Sensation and Perception<br />
  2. 2. Interesting Stats on Brain<br />100 billion cells, each with thousands of connections (up to 100,000).<br />1 cubic inch=10,000 miles of fibers, 100 million cells<br />1300 -1400 grams <br />350 – 400 grams<br />-adult versus newborn <br />brain<br />
  3. 3. The Nervous System<br />
  4. 4. Key Concepts<br />Brain<br />Sensory<br />Neuron<br />Motor<br />Neuron<br />Skin receptors<br />Interneuron<br />Muscle<br />Nervous systems function in sensory input, integration, and motor output.<br />The nervous system is composed of neurons and supporting cells.<br />Membrane potentials arise from differences in ion concentrations between a cell’s contents and the extracellular fluid.<br />An action potential is an all-or-none change in the membrane potential.<br />
  5. 5. Key Concepts<br />Action potentials travel along an axon because they are self-propagating.<br />Chemical or electrical communication between cells occurs at synapses.<br />One neurotransmitter can produce different effects on different types of cells.<br />
  6. 6. P<br />e<br />r<br />i<br />p<br />h<br />e<br />r<br />a<br />l<br />N<br />e<br />r<br />v<br />o<br />u<br />s<br />S<br />y<br />s<br />t<br />e<br />m<br />S<br />k<br />e<br />l<br />e<br />t<br />a<br />l<br />A<br />u<br />t<br />o<br />n<br />o<br />m<br />i<br />c<br />(<br />S<br />o<br />m<br />a<br />t<br />i<br />c<br />)<br />S<br />y<br />m<br />p<br />a<br />t<br />h<br />e<br />t<br />i<br />c<br />P<br />a<br />r<br />a<br />s<br />y<br />m<br />p<br />a<br />t<br />h<br />e<br />t<br />i<br />c<br />Central Nervous System <br />Peripheral Nervous System<br />Key Concepts<br />The symmetry of the nervous system is correlated with body symmetry.<br />Vertebrate nervous systems are highly centralized and cephalized.<br />The vertebrate peripheral nervous system has several components differing in organization and function.<br />
  7. 7. Key Concepts<br />The brainstem conducts data and controls automatic activities essential for survival.<br />The cerebellum controls movement and balance.<br />The thalamus and hypothalamus are prominent integrating centers of the forebrain.<br />The cerebrum contains the most sophisticated integrating centers.<br />
  8. 8. Functions of Nervous Systems<br />
  9. 9. Cells of the Nervous System<br />Neurons<br /><ul><li>Functional unit of the NS
  10. 10. Transmit signals from one location to another
  11. 11. Structure
  12. 12. Large cell body
  13. 13. Processes that conduct signals
  14. 14. Dendrites: tips  neuron
  15. 15. Axons: neuron  tips</li></ul>Enclosed by myelin sheath<br />End in synaptic terminals that release neurotransmitters<br />
  16. 16. The Dendrite Song!<br />Axons send outNeurotransmittersTo the dendrites all aroundAcross the synapseJumps the impulseNew ideas can now abound. <br />StimulationIs what the brain needsTo make dendrites stretch and grow. New connectionsMake us smarterIn what we think and what we know. <br />Use your dendrites,Use your dendrites,To connect throughout your brainTake in info, analyze it,Grow some new onesUnrestrained.<br />(sung to the tune of "Clementine“)<br />Use your dendrites,Use your dendrites,To connect throughout your brain.Take in info, analyze it,Grow some new onesUnrestrained. <br />
  17. 17. How are neurons organized? (158)<br />Three types of neurons<br />Afferent (Sensory) neurons<br />Interneurons (Central Nervous System)<br />Efferent (Motor) neurons<br /><ul><li>Neural circuits form from any combination of two or more of these
  18. 18. Convergent: (many to one)
  19. 19. Divergent: (one to many)
  20. 20. Reverberating: (circular)
  21. 21. Simplest: Sensory and motor neurons – reflex arc</li></li></ul><li>“The Reflex Arc”<br />
  22. 22. Neurotransmitters: crossing the gap between neurons<br />Chemicals that cross the synapse to relay the impulse to another neuron or an effector<br />Examples: acetylcholine, norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin, endorphins, amino acids, neuropeptides, gases<br />
  23. 23. Major Divisions of Nervous System<br />Central N.S.<br />Brain<br />Brainstem<br />Spinal Cord<br />Peripheral N.S.<br />Somatic N.S.<br />Autonomic<br /> -Sympathetic<br /> -Parasympathetic<br />
  24. 24. Central Nervous System (CNS)<br />Cephalized<br />Centralized<br />Integration and processing of information<br />White matter – axons in the CNS<br />Gray matter – cell bodies, dendrites, unmyelinated axons<br />Central canal of the spinal cord<br />Ventricles of the brain<br />Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)<br />Meninges– protective connective tissue<br />
  25. 25. PNS<br />Transmits information to and from the CNS<br />Components<br />Both sensory and motor functions<br />Paired cranial nerves (12)<br />Paired spinal nerves (31)<br />Ganglia<br />Motor division<br />Somatic nervous system<br />Voluntary - signals to and from skeletal muscles<br />Respond to external stimuli<br />Autonomic nervous system<br />Involuntary - Internal environment, smooth and cardiac muscles<br />Sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions<br />
  26. 26. Actions of the parasympathetic and sympathetic divisions of the Autonomic Nervous System (156-158)<br />Sympathetic division<br />Stimulation<br />Flight/Fight<br />Energy generation<br />Parasympathetic division<br />Calming<br />Rest and repair<br />Often have antagonistic actions<br />Cooperate to maintain homeostasis<br />
  27. 27. Structure and function of the vertebrate brain<br />
  28. 28.
  29. 29. Integrating centers in the cerebrum<br />Right and left cerebral hemispheres<br />Cerebral cortex<br />Highly developed and convoluted in mammals<br />Lobes with sensory areas and association areas, frontal lobe with motor cortex<br />Basal nuclei – planning and learning movement sequences<br />
  30. 30. Other roles of the cerebral cortex<br />Language and speech<br />Broca’s area<br />Wernicke’s area<br />Emotions<br />Limbic system – amygdala, hippocampus, and olfactory bulb<br />Laughing, crying, aggression, feeding, and sexuality<br />Memory and learning<br />Short-term: frontal lobe<br />Long-term: amygdala and hippocampus<br />Neurons may make new connections<br />Consciousness<br />Emergent property based on activity in many areas of the cortex<br />
  31. 31. 3 Divisions of the Brain<br />Hindbrain – attached to spinal cord, automatic functions (breathing, heartbeat) and some voluntary (walking, facial movements)<br />Midbrain – relay station b/t hindbrain/forebrain<br />Forebrain – largest/most complex region<br /> -includes cerebrum – center for complex thought<br />
  32. 32.
  33. 33. Limbic System<br />Helps regulate memory, aggression, fear, hunger, and thirst<br />Includes Hypothalamus, Hippocampus, and Amygdala<br />
  34. 34. A. Hypothalamus<br />Regulates eating, drinking, body temperature, libido, and the “fight or flight” reaction<br />
  35. 35. B. Hippocampus<br />Part of the limbic system that helps us form new memories <br />Looks like a seahorse<br />Hippo is Greek for “horse.”<br />“If you saw a hippo on campus, you’d never forget it!”<br />
  36. 36.
  37. 37. C. Amygdala<br />Controls emotional responses such as fear and anger <br />Damage to this area could result in violent, aggressive behavior<br />
  38. 38. II. Cerebral Cortex<br /><ul><li>The body’s ultimate control and information processing center</li></li></ul><li>A. Corpus Callosum<br />Connects the two brain hemispheres <br />Is sometimes cut to prevent seizures<br />Video: “Severed Corpus Callosum” – scroll over and hit play<br />
  39. 39. B. The Four Lobes (162)<br />Frontal, Parietal, Occipital, and Temporal<br />
  40. 40. 1. Frontal Lobes<br />Located just behind the forehead<br />Involved in personality, making plans and judgments<br />
  41. 41. 2. Parietal Lobes<br />Involved in making associations<br />Located behind the frontal lobes<br />
  42. 42. 3. Occipital Lobes<br />The primary visual processing area<br />Located in the back of the head<br />Damage to this area could result in loss of vision<br />
  43. 43. 4. Temporal Lobes<br />Auditory (sound) information is first processed here<br />Located above the ears<br />
  44. 44.
  45. 45. Cerebral Cortex<br />
  46. 46. Cerebral Cortex<br />
  47. 47. Cerebral Cortex<br />
  48. 48. Cerebral Cortex<br />
  49. 49.
  50. 50. III. Hemispheric Differences<br />
  51. 51. A. Left Hemisphere<br />Spoken language is one of the clearest differences between the two hemispheres.<br />For most people, language functions are in the left hemisphere.<br />
  52. 52. 1. Broca’s Area<br />Located in the frontal lobe, usually in the left hemisphere<br />Responsible for the muscle movements of speech<br />Damage to this area causes problems in expressing thoughts in spoken language<br />
  53. 53. PET Scan of Broca’s Area <br />
  54. 54.
  55. 55. Broca’s Area<br />This is the brain of “Tal” from whom Broca discovered the area for speech. Note the damage to Broca’s Area.<br />
  56. 56. 2. Wernicke’s Area<br />Located in the temporal lobe (usually on the left side)<br />Gives us the ability to understand what is said to us<br />
  57. 57.
  58. 58. PET Scan of Wernicke’s Area<br />
  59. 59. B. Right Hemisphere<br />Spatial skills - being able to perceive or organize things in a given space, judge distance, etc.<br />Relationships and emotions<br />
  60. 60. Left Brain: language, math, reasoning<br />Right Brain: emotion, relationships, music<br />
  61. 61. C. Plasticity<br />The ability of the brain tissue to take on new functions<br />Greatest in childhood<br />Important if parts of the brain are damaged or destroyed<br />
  62. 62. Methods of Studying Brain<br />Recording<br />Stimulation<br />Lesions<br />Accidents<br />Images<br />
  63. 63. IV. Imaging Techniques<br />CAT Scan: X-rays taken from different angles of the brain<br />MRI: computer generated images of soft tissue in the brain<br />EEG: electrodes on the scalp measure waves of electrical activity in the brain<br />PET: a visual display of brain activity based on glucose (blood sugar)<br />
  64. 64. Endocrine System<br />
  65. 65. Pituitary Gland-regulates growth and water and salt metabolism<br />
  66. 66. Thyroid Gland-Controls the metabolic rate<br />
  67. 67. Sex GlandsTestes (male)Ovaries (female)<br />Adrenal Glands-Regulate carbohydrate and salt metabolism-Prepares the body for action<br />
  68. 68. Heredity and Environment<br />Genes and Behavior<br />Heredity – Genetic transmission of characteristics from parents to their offspring<br />Nature vs. Nurture Debate<br />Twin Studies<br />Viewed as the “Gold Mine” of the Nature vs. Nurture debate<br />

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