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Dual credit psychology notes chapter 15 - stress - shortened for slideshare

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  • 1. Ch. 15 – Stress and Health Section 1 –Sources of Stress
  • 2. Stress• Stress- a person’s reaction to his or her inability to cope with a certain tense event or situation.
  • 3. Science of Stress – 3:33
  • 4. Components of Stress• Stressor- a stress- producing event or situation• Stress Reaction - the body’s response to a stressor• Distress - stress that stems from acute anxiety or pressure• Eustress - positive stress, which results from motivating strivings and challenges
  • 5. Conflict Situation - when a person mustchoose between two or more options that tend to result from opposing motives
  • 6. Appraising a Stressful Situation• Primary Appraisal – immediate evaluation of a situation – irrelevant, positive, negative• Secondary Appraisal – pick coping strategy
  • 7. Appraising Stress – 10 min
  • 8. Cell Phone – WWYD – 6min
  • 9. Environmental Stressors – an external form of a stressor that you are exposed to…• Crowd Noise• Crowding• Smell• Light Pollution
  • 10. Life Changes and Stress
  • 11. Hassles – smallannoyances that if isolated will not producesignificant stress
  • 12. Section 2 – Reactions to Stress• Stress will be reacted to if intense/prolonged• Nature vs. Nurture• Varies by person/culture
  • 13. Fight or Flight – the bodies default response to a perceived threat or danger• Autonomic Nervous System – controls this• Sympathetic (speeds up)• Parasympathetic – slows down
  • 14. General Adaptation Syndrome• Information
  • 15. Emotional and Cognitive Responses• Short-term psychological stress reactions• Anxiety – vague, generalized apprehension or feelings of danger• Anger – irate reaction likely to result from frustration• Fear – usual reaction when a stressor involves real or imagined danger
  • 16. BehavioralReactions • Maladaptive coping – behaviors such as using alcohol and drugs to escape problems. • Adaptive coping – involves direct confrontation of problems, realistic appraisals, recognizing and modifying unhealthy responses
  • 17. Physical Reactions• General Adaptation Syndrome, Autonomic NS
  • 18. Factors Influencing Reactions to Stress• Personality, Perceived Control, Social Support
  • 19. Personality Differences• Type A vs. Type B• Emotional Expressiveness• Internalize or externalize stress
  • 20. Perceived Control over Stressors• Predictable Stress better than Unpredictable• Effect on Jobs – employees need to believe they have a say in what is going on• W.I. Thomas Theorem - What is perceived as real is real in its consequences
  • 21. Social Support• Information
  • 22. Social Support• Emotional – concerned listening/affection• Appraisal – Interactive, sort out (Socratic Method)• Informational – stressed person responds/solutions• Instrumental – direct help (money, bed, car, etc…)
  • 23. Section 3 – Coping with Stress
  • 24. Psychological Coping Strategies • Cognitive Appraisal – interpreting event  determine stress impact
  • 25. Defensive Coping Strategies• Denial - a coping mechanism in which a person decides that the event is not really a stressor• Intellectualization - a coping mechanism in which the person analyzes a situation from an emotionally detached viewpoint.
  • 26. Active Coping Strategies• Doing something to fix, deal with or avoid a stressful situation (Adaptive Coping if positive, maladaptive coping if negative)
  • 27. Hardiness – ability to not give up• Traits  Control, Commitment, Challenge
  • 28. Controlling Stressful SituationsEscape/Withdrawal  Controlling Exposure toStressorsProblem Solving• Confronting situation headon/rational analysis• Leads to decision making
  • 29. Explanatory Style• Optimists – people who see the circumstances they are in positively• Pessimists – people who see the circumstances they are in negatively• Seligman  Baseball Players – analyzed post game comments, coded them  optimists lived longer
  • 30. Relaxation• Control Physiological Responses to Stress
  • 31. Progressive Relaxation• Lying down, tensing and relaxing each muscle
  • 32. Meditation• Focusing attention to clear mind = inner peace
  • 33. Biofeedback• Learning to control bodily states with machines
  • 34. Humor
  • 35. Exercise • Adrenalin and Cortisol …Fight or Flight
  • 36. Support Groups/Professional Help • Alcoholics Anonymous • Weight Watchers • Accountability Groups
  • 37. Training• Practicing speaking, playing golf, mock interviews
  • 38. Improving Interpersonal Skills
  • 39. Section 4 – Stress in Your Life
  • 40. Autonomy• Ability to take care of oneself and make one’s own decisions• Decisions, value system, worldview, respo nsibility, etc…
  • 41. Choosing College• “College Shock”• Peter Madison (1969)• College students  high/unrealistic expectations initially
  • 42. Sources of Change (in college) • Challenge Identity • Greater Diversity • Developmental Friendships
  • 43. Developmental Friendships• Friends force on another to reexamine their basic assumptions and perhaps adopt new ideas and beliefs.• Ex.  Eric and Samir
  • 44. Coping with Change• Focusing on goals, work harder through doubt• Going through motions
  • 45. Resynthesis• Combining old ideas with new ones and reorganizing feelings in order to renew one’s identity.• Resynthesis (example  changing majors many times)
  • 46. Working• Variety of Challenges, Rewards in Working
  • 47. Work Satisfaction/Dissatisfaction• 5 Major Sources of Work Satisfaction1. Resources – tools to do the job well2. $$$ - includes income, benefits, security3. Challenge4. Relations with coworkers5. Comfort (conditions, commute, physical aspects)
  • 48. Changing Careers• Retire then start new career• Good economy = less satisfaction = more change• Bad economy = more satisfaction = less change
  • 49. Careers• A vocation in which a person works at least a few years
  • 50. Comparable Worth• the concept that women and men (and all people) should receive equal pay for jobs calling for comparable skill and responsibility.• People (consciously or unconsciously) compare their career to others• Can be a source of great dissatisfaction