Section 1 – Characteristics of Psychological TestsTest Reliability – Consistently yielding the sameresults• Reliability- the ability of a test to give the same results under similar conditionsSimilar repeated scores show thisInterscorer/Scorer ReliabilitySplit Half Reliability
Test Validity• Validity- the ability of a test to measure what it is intended to measure• Predictive validity – predicting performance
Other concepts…Standardization – tests administered/scored same alwaysEstablishing Norms – relationship to average score by a largegroupPercentile System- ranking of test scores that indicates the ratioof scores lower and higher than a given score.Norms- standard of comparison for test results developed bygiving the test to large, well-defined groups of people.Norms change over time, standards do not
Section 2 –Intelligence Testing
Views of IntelligenceIntelligence- the ability to acquire new ideas andnew behavior, and to adapt to new situations.
Two-Factor Theory of IntelligenceTwo-Factor Theory- proposes that two factorscontribute to an individual’s intelligence.1. “G” – General Intelligence2. “S” – Specific Mental Abilities (Math, Verbal, etc…)
Thurstone’s Theory of Intelligence• No overall, general intelligence (“G”)7 Primary Mental Abilities1. Verbal comprehension2. Reasoning3. Perceptual speed4. Numerical ability5. Word fluency6. Associative memory7. Spatial visualization
Sternberg’s Theory of IntelligenceTriarchic Theory- proposes that intelligence canbe divided into three ways of processinginformation1. Analytical2. Creative3. Practical
Emotional IntelligenceEmotional Intelligence- includes four major aspectsof interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligences1. Perceive/Express Emotions Correctly2. Use emotions while thinking3. Understand emotions/use knowledge4. Regulate emotions for personal growth
Development of Intelligence Tests
Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale• Alfred Binet – at Stanford – Developed – Most common• Intelligence Quotient (IQ) – standardized measure of intelligence based on a scale in which 100 is average• IQ = Mental age/actual age X 100• Over 100 = above average, under 100 = below
Uses and Meaning of IQ Scores• Do they really measure intelligence?• Test taking?They are generally accurate in predicting schoolperformance
Controversies over IQ TestingNature versus NurtureHeritability – the degree to which acharacteristic is related to inherited geneticfactorsCultural Bias – an aspect of an intelligence testin which the wording used in questions may bemore familiar to people of one social group thanto another group
Section 3-Measuring, Achievement, Abilities, an d Interests
Aptitude Test- estimates the probability that a person will be successful in learning a specific new skill• http://walterfootball.co m/draftwonderlic.phpExample – Wonderlic Test– Given to Footballplayers when they aretested aftercollege, before enteringthe pros… ACT
Achievement Test- measures how much a person has learned in a given subject or area.
Interest Inventory- measures aperson’s preferences and attitudes ina wide variety of activities to identify areas of likely success.
Section Four- Personality Testing• Personality test- assesses an individual’s characteristics and identifies problems
Objective Personality Tests• Objective tests- a limited- or forced-choice test in which a person must select one of several answers• MMPI – Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory – used for police entrance• CPI – California Psychological Inventory – adjustment to stress, leadership, job success• Myers-Briggs – focused on showing relationships with others
Projective Personality Tests• Projective tests- an unstructured test in which a person is asked to respond freely, giving his or her own interpretation of various ambiguous stimuli.
Rorschach Inkblot Test • 10 cards with inkblots, record responses (verbal and nonverbal) – reveals hidden meaning
The TAT• “Thematic Apperception Test”20 cards, pictures, vague situationsSubjects make up a storyPsychologists look for themes