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Dual credit psychology notes   chapter 12 - motivation and emotion - shortened for slideshare
Dual credit psychology notes   chapter 12 - motivation and emotion - shortened for slideshare
Dual credit psychology notes   chapter 12 - motivation and emotion - shortened for slideshare
Dual credit psychology notes   chapter 12 - motivation and emotion - shortened for slideshare
Dual credit psychology notes   chapter 12 - motivation and emotion - shortened for slideshare
Dual credit psychology notes   chapter 12 - motivation and emotion - shortened for slideshare
Dual credit psychology notes   chapter 12 - motivation and emotion - shortened for slideshare
Dual credit psychology notes   chapter 12 - motivation and emotion - shortened for slideshare
Dual credit psychology notes   chapter 12 - motivation and emotion - shortened for slideshare
Dual credit psychology notes   chapter 12 - motivation and emotion - shortened for slideshare
Dual credit psychology notes   chapter 12 - motivation and emotion - shortened for slideshare
Dual credit psychology notes   chapter 12 - motivation and emotion - shortened for slideshare
Dual credit psychology notes   chapter 12 - motivation and emotion - shortened for slideshare
Dual credit psychology notes   chapter 12 - motivation and emotion - shortened for slideshare
Dual credit psychology notes   chapter 12 - motivation and emotion - shortened for slideshare
Dual credit psychology notes   chapter 12 - motivation and emotion - shortened for slideshare
Dual credit psychology notes   chapter 12 - motivation and emotion - shortened for slideshare
Dual credit psychology notes   chapter 12 - motivation and emotion - shortened for slideshare
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Dual credit psychology notes chapter 12 - motivation and emotion - shortened for slideshare

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  • 1. Ch. 12 – Motivation and Emotion
  • 2. Theories of Motivation
  • 3. Theories of Motivation• Instinct Theory• Drive-Reduction• Incentive Theory• Cognitive Theory
  • 4. Motivation• Internal state that activates behavior and directs it towards a goal.
  • 5. 1. Instinct Theoryinnate tendencies determine human behavior
  • 6. 2. Drive Reduction Theory Drive – state of tension produced by a need –motivates an organism towards a goal Need – bio. or psycho. requirement of an organism – ex. Oxygen/food/social approvalHomeostasis – tendency of organisms to correctimbalances/deviations from normal state
  • 7. 3. Incentive Theory – organisms are motivated by incentives• Incentive - External stimulus, reinforcer, or reward that motivates behavior – stresses environmental factors
  • 8. 4. Cognitive Theory – How an organisms thinking influences behavior• Extrinsic Motivation – activities that either reduce biological needs or obtain incentives/rewards• Intrinsic motivation – activities that are personally rewarding or fulfill beliefs/expectations• “Mentalism” – Mental states are to behavior as cause is to effect.
  • 9. Ch. 12.2 Biological and Social Motives• Hunger (drive)/Food (need) – example – page 321Lateral Hypothalamus – produces hunger signalsVentromedial Hypothalamus – Signal to stop eating
  • 10. • Food Biological Motives• Water• Oxygen• Sleep• Avoid pain• Others?
  • 11. Social Motives • Need to excel • Need for social bonds • Need for fun • Others?
  • 12. Some studies on motivation…• Eating – Schachter – Overweight people respond to external cues; normal weight people respond to internal cues…• Fear of success – Horner – Write a story “After first term finals, John finds himself…top of his class”  90% of men predicted success for “Anne” when substituted for John, 65% of women predicted failure for Anne.
  • 13. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Self Actualization Needs Psychological Needs Fundamental (Physical) Needs
  • 14. Emotions• Set of complex reactions to stimuli involving subjective feelings, physiolo gical arousal, and observable behavior
  • 15. Expressing Emotions – 3 parts – Physical, Behavioral, Cognitive
  • 16. Psychological Theories• Arguments for Biologically Based Emotions1. Universal Expressions of Emotions Across Cultures2. Blind/deaf children laughing/smiling3. Difficulty hiding true emotions• James-Lange theory – emotions perceptions of internal bodily changes• Canon-Bard Theory – argued (incorrectly) thalamus was center of emotions (limbic system is…amygdala, hypothalamus, hippocampus)
  • 17. Cognitive Theories• Reacting to social cues (Schacter/Singer Experiment…injections of adrenaline)• Opponent processing – sympathetic and parasympathetic balance emotions in homeostasis
  • 18. Opponent-Process Theory

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