Annotate each picture• What do you see?• Tip: refer to colours,camera angle and framingas well as explainingprecisely what is shown.
LO: to explore how age, gender and race arerepresented in the music press• Representation means …• How people and places in the real world are shown to us.• What is shown and what is left out.• Reflects biases of the producer – and audience.• Important because the more often we see a particularrepresentation, the more likely we are to believe it istrue.
Representation in the music industry• Creates and maintain the image of performersand bands• Music press sells image and a lifestyle as well asmusic• Clear genre expectations• Performers are expected to conform toexpectations.• What do you expect a performer of … to look like?rap dance classicalheavy metal rock pop
What to look at:• Expressions• Posture• Clothes• Props• Background• Colours• Ba• Framing• Shot
Lily Allen - 2009Each of these magazine frontpages, all from 2009, featuresthe singer Lily Allen. Whatdifferences and similarities doyou notice between eachcover? What does this tellyou about the representationof women in eachpublication?
IT’S A PROBLEM• Don’t even get mestarted on this video ?• Why arent youngwomen bothered bythis ?
Why is it bad if women are represented as sex objectsor objectified and only judged by their appearance ?
Audience and Institutions• Stars are made to make money for that purposealone.• The institution then models the stars image aroundthe target audience, for example Rihanna
Dyer’s 3 ingredients1. The star as Construction• A star is created by record labels successfulmarketing– Advertising, Product, placement, TV, Radio,Newspapers• They create an image of the star• Signature pose/hair/look/clothing
2. The Star as Commodity• The record company want to make the mostmoney out of the artist– Merchandise– Getting the audience to become the star andlook like them• Audience buy merchandise to look like themDyer’s 3 ingredients
3. The Star as an ideology• All artists have a belief or value attached to their image• This belief is called ‘ideology’• Artists sell this ideology as part of their imageDyer’s 3 ingredients
• We relate to the star because they have a featurethat we admire or share with them. This developsfrom an admiration into an idolization.• Some people may attempt to replicate what they likeabout the star, but this can be negative as eventhough stars are seen as role models, some abusehard drugs and alcohol which can lead to people whoworship these stars copying their actions.HegemonyREMEMBER: that institutions use representations to influence their audiences
How do Rihanna and Beyonce help create sexisthegemony?? !!
In the portrayal of men and women, advertising oftenuses the following codes and conventions:Superiority, Domination & Body Language: Menare shown in dominant positions and appear to bereflective of thought and intelligence. Women arephysically portrayed in sexual or reclining poseswith blank or inviting expressions.Dismemberment: On females, parts of the bodysuch as legs, chest, etc., are used, rather than thefull body. This is often applied to sell productswhich are not related to the body, such as mobilephones (right)The Voice-Over Authority: In moving imageadvertisements, male voices are used as voice-overs in commercials rather than females.Gender Representations in AdvertisingGoffmans Theory (1972)
Does it apply to Magazines>?Is this any better ?Censored !
How are black people and non white peopleStereotyped (positively and negatively) in life and inthe media?
Echoes – ‘The UK’s essential black music monthly’• Stereotyped images ofblack people:• Athletic, muscular dark-skinned men, curvylighter-skinned women?• Aggressive, hostile, rebellious?• Materialistic?• Women as props?• What are they selling? Towhom?
Representation in the music industry has a negativeeffect on audiences and performersRelies on old-fashionedstereotypesPromotes unrealisticbody imagesPressures women tobe sexyPeople who are notthe right race, sex orsize may be left out.Limits whichperformers can besuccessfulReflects what theaudience wantsIt’s the audience’sfaultIt’s all theproducers’ faultIt’s all theadvertisers’ fault