Organelles & Subcellular Organization<br />
Nucleus<br />Nuclear envelope<br />Double memb enclosing the nucleus<br />Perforated by pores<br />Continuous w/ER<br />Nu...
Plasma Membrane<br />Memb enclosing cell<br />
Ribosomes<br />Non-mbo that make proteins<br />Found free in cytoplas,<br />Found bound to ER or nuclear envelope<br />
Golgi Apparatus<br />Active in synthesis, modification, sorting & secreting cell products<br />Cis & trans face<br />
Lysosome<br />Digestive orgll where macromols are hydrolyzed<br />
Peroxisome<br />Orgll w/varsp’d metabolic functiosn<br />Prods H2O2<br />Contains enz that transf H to O prod-ing H2O2 whi...
Microvilli<br />Projections that ↑ SA<br />
Centrosome<br />Region where cell microtubules are initiated<br />Animals: contain pr of centrosomes<br />Function unknown...
Cell Wall<br />Outer layer <br />Maintains shape<br />Protects cell from mechanical damage<br />Made of cellulose, other p...
Plasmodesmata<br />Channels thru CWs that connect the cytoplasm of adj cells<br />
Chloroplast<br />PS-icorgll<br />Converts nrg of sun to chem’lnrg stored in sugar mol<br />
Endomembrane System (EMS)<br />
ER<br />Network of membranous sacs & tubes<br />Active in membrane synthesis & other synthetic & metabolic processes<br />...
Smooth ER<br />Synthesis of lipids<br />Metabolism of carbs<br />Detoxification of drugs & poisons<br />Cells rich in sER<...
Rough ER<br />Secrete prot prod by ribosomes on rER<br />Memb factory of cell<br />Pacreas – secretes (prot) insulin<br />
Vacuoles<br />Food vacuoles – formed by phagocytosis<br />Contractile vacuole – pumps fw out<br />Central vacuole - plant<...
Central Vacuole<br />Prominent orgll in older plant cells<br />Functincl:<br />Storage<br />Breakdown of waste prods<br />...
Tonoplast<br />Memb around central vac<br />
Mitochondria & Chloroplast<br /><ul><li>DNA
Ribosomes
Grow & reproduce inside of cell</li></li></ul><li>Mitochondria<br />Orgll where CR occurs & most ATP is generated <br />Ou...
Chloroplast<br />Thylakoid – flattened sacs<br />Granum – stacks of thylakoids<br />Stroma – fluid outside thylakoid<br />
Cytoskeleton<br />Network of fibers extending thru cytoplasm<br />Plays maj role in organizing structures & activities of ...
Roles of Cytoskeleton<br />Mechanical support: maintains cell shape (dynamic ∆s)<br />Motility<br />Flagella & cilia<br />...
Components of cytoskeleton<br />made of protein<br />Microfilaments<br />Intermediate filaments<br />Microtubules<br />
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Ap organelles & subcellular organization

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Ap organelles & subcellular organization

  1. 1. Organelles & Subcellular Organization<br />
  2. 2. Nucleus<br />Nuclear envelope<br />Double memb enclosing the nucleus<br />Perforated by pores<br />Continuous w/ER<br />Nucleolus<br />Non-mbo involved in prod’n of ribosomes<br />1 or more/nucleus<br />Chromatin<br />Material consisting of DNA & proteins<br />Visible as indiv chromosomes in a dividing cell <br />
  3. 3. Plasma Membrane<br />Memb enclosing cell<br />
  4. 4. Ribosomes<br />Non-mbo that make proteins<br />Found free in cytoplas,<br />Found bound to ER or nuclear envelope<br />
  5. 5. Golgi Apparatus<br />Active in synthesis, modification, sorting & secreting cell products<br />Cis & trans face<br />
  6. 6. Lysosome<br />Digestive orgll where macromols are hydrolyzed<br />
  7. 7. Peroxisome<br />Orgll w/varsp’d metabolic functiosn<br />Prods H2O2<br />Contains enz that transf H to O prod-ing H2O2 which is toxic<br />Also contains enz that ∆s H2O2 H2O<br />Glyoxysome<br />sp’edperoxysome<br />Fat storing tissue of seeds <br />
  8. 8. Microvilli<br />Projections that ↑ SA<br />
  9. 9. Centrosome<br />Region where cell microtubules are initiated<br />Animals: contain pr of centrosomes<br />Function unknown<br />Plants : lack centrosomes<br />
  10. 10. Cell Wall<br />Outer layer <br />Maintains shape<br />Protects cell from mechanical damage<br />Made of cellulose, other polysaccharides & proteins<br />
  11. 11. Plasmodesmata<br />Channels thru CWs that connect the cytoplasm of adj cells<br />
  12. 12. Chloroplast<br />PS-icorgll<br />Converts nrg of sun to chem’lnrg stored in sugar mol<br />
  13. 13. Endomembrane System (EMS)<br />
  14. 14. ER<br />Network of membranous sacs & tubes<br />Active in membrane synthesis & other synthetic & metabolic processes<br />Has rough & smooth regions<br />
  15. 15. Smooth ER<br />Synthesis of lipids<br />Metabolism of carbs<br />Detoxification of drugs & poisons<br />Cells rich in sER<br />Testes & ovaries (make & secrete sex hormones)<br />Liver cells (detox)<br />Muscle cells<br />
  16. 16. Rough ER<br />Secrete prot prod by ribosomes on rER<br />Memb factory of cell<br />Pacreas – secretes (prot) insulin<br />
  17. 17. Vacuoles<br />Food vacuoles – formed by phagocytosis<br />Contractile vacuole – pumps fw out<br />Central vacuole - plant<br />
  18. 18. Central Vacuole<br />Prominent orgll in older plant cells<br />Functincl:<br />Storage<br />Breakdown of waste prods<br />Hydrolysis of mmols<br />Enlargement of vac is majmech of plant growth<br />
  19. 19. Tonoplast<br />Memb around central vac<br />
  20. 20. Mitochondria & Chloroplast<br /><ul><li>DNA
  21. 21. Ribosomes
  22. 22. Grow & reproduce inside of cell</li></li></ul><li>Mitochondria<br />Orgll where CR occurs & most ATP is generated <br />Outer memb<br />Intermemb space<br />Inner memb<br />Cristae<br />infolding of inner memb<br />Mitochondrial matrix <br />Inside inner memb<br />Contains ribosomes & mRNA<br />
  23. 23. Chloroplast<br />Thylakoid – flattened sacs<br />Granum – stacks of thylakoids<br />Stroma – fluid outside thylakoid<br />
  24. 24. Cytoskeleton<br />Network of fibers extending thru cytoplasm<br />Plays maj role in organizing structures & activities of cell<br />
  25. 25. Roles of Cytoskeleton<br />Mechanical support: maintains cell shape (dynamic ∆s)<br />Motility<br />Flagella & cilia<br />Muscle cell contraction<br />Vesicles that bud off ER to Golgi travel tracks of cytoskeleton elements<br />Cytoplasmic streaming<br />Regulation of biochem’l activities of cell<br />
  26. 26. Components of cytoskeleton<br />made of protein<br />Microfilaments<br />Intermediate filaments<br />Microtubules<br />
  27. 27. Flagellum<br />Locomotion orgll<br />Composed of membrane enclosed microtubules<br />Move by gripping microtubules w/in those orglls & propelling them past each other<br />

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