Chapter 9 - 1965  Singapore's  Separation from Malaysia
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Chapter 9 - 1965 Singapore's Separation from Malaysia






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    Chapter 9 - 1965  Singapore's  Separation from Malaysia Chapter 9 - 1965 Singapore's Separation from Malaysia Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter 9 Separation of Singapore from Malaysia
    • Why was separation inevitable?
      • Economic reasons
        • Delays in setting up common market
        • Imposition of new taxes on Singapore
        • Attempts to increase Spore’s contribution to the central government
      • Political reasons
        • Political rivalry
        • Racial politics
        • Effects of the Malaysian Malaysia campaign
    • Details of disagreements – Economic reasons
      • Kuala Lumpur saw Singapore as an economic rival – implementation of common market was delayed as a result.
      • Central government wanted to protect Malaysian industries, it imposed new taxes on Singapore. This hindered Singapore’s efforts to industrialise.
      • KL proposed Singapore increased its contribution from 40% to 60%. Singapore feared this would cripple its economy.
    • Political reasons – impact of the elections on the r/s betw PAP and the Alliance
      • 1963 State Election in Spore
        • PAP won 37 out of 51 seats contested.
        • The Singapore Alliance (made up of UMNO, MCA and MIC) did not win any seat.
        • Alliance leaders in KL were upset with the outcome.
      • 1964 Federal Election in Malaysia
        • PAP took part, aim to build a Malaysia not based on racial lines, equal opportunities for all.
        • Alliance leaders took offence, felt it challenged rights of the Malays
    • Racial Politics – Effects of the anti–PAP campaign
      • UMNO embarked on an anti-PAP campaign using the Malay press, esp Utusan Melayu.
        • Criticised PAP for not looking after interests of the Malays in Singapore.
        • Exploited resettlement of Malay families in the Crawford, Kampong Glam and Rochor areas.
      • Meetings were held betw PAP and Malay reps regarding education, employment and housing for Malays. Tension grew as matters did not improve. Led to the racial riots in 1964.
    • PAP’s Malaysian Malaysia campaign
      • PAP campaigned for a Malaysian Malaysia, where everyone has equal rights and opportunities.
      • October 1964 The Singapore Alliance stated that they would reorganise themselves to win enough votes in the 1967 Singapore state election to form a new government.
    • Events and implications
      • May 1965 PAP brought together four other Malaysian opposition parties to form Malaysian Solidarity Convention (MSC).
      • Aim for a Malaysian Malaysia where everyone would be treated equally regardless of race or religion.
      • PAP greatly angered UMNO leaders, some even called for the arrest of Lee Kuan Yew.
    • Threats to Singapore’s peace
      • Internal threat – 1964 Racial riots
        • 21 July 1964 More than 25,000 Malays gathered at Padang to celebrate Prophet Mohammed’s birthday.
        • Speeches were made by Malay leaders, some criticised PAP for ill-treatment of the Malays.
        • A policeman was assaulted in a procession in Geylang.
        • Rest started attacking Chinese.
        • Clashes between Chinese and Malays broke out in different parts of Singapore.
    • Continuation of racial riots
        • Curfew was imposed and only lifted on 2 nd Aug 1964.
        • 23 people were killled and 454 people injured in the riots.
      • Sept 1964 – Another race riot occurred
        • 13 people were killed and 106 were injured.
    • External Threat – The Indonesian Confrontation
      • Indonesian trade embargo – Singapore’s trade declined and some people were unemployed.
      • However Singapore was not severly affected as trade with other countries continued.
      • Violence and disruption of peace
        • Indonesian agents set off bombs – innocent people were killed and properties damaged.
        • By March 1965, 29 bombs had been set off in Singapore.
        • A voluntary Vigilant Corps was set up to help defend Singapore.
        • Confrontation ended in Aug 1966 when new Indonesian government took over.
    • Separation
      • 7 Aug 1965 Tunku Abdul Rahman announced that Malaysia will “expel” Singapore.
      • 9 Aug 1965 Lee Kuan Yew announced attainment of full independence.
        • Singapore became a Republic
        • Head of State – the President
        • Legislative Assembly was renamed Parliament, members known as Members of Parliament.
    • Challenges ahead
      • Economic – No natural resources and industries were not well-developed.
      • Defence – Singapore had to build up its own defence force to take over from the Malaysian and British military forces.
      • Housing – Steps had to be taken to meet the housing needs of its growing population.
    • Video