Chapter 9 - 1965 Singapore's Separation from Malaysia


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Chapter 9 - 1965 Singapore's Separation from Malaysia

  1. 1. Chapter 9 Separation of Singapore from Malaysia
  2. 2. Why was separation inevitable? <ul><li>Economic reasons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Delays in setting up common market </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Imposition of new taxes on Singapore </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attempts to increase Spore’s contribution to the central government </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Political reasons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Political rivalry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Racial politics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effects of the Malaysian Malaysia campaign </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Details of disagreements – Economic reasons <ul><li>Kuala Lumpur saw Singapore as an economic rival – implementation of common market was delayed as a result. </li></ul><ul><li>Central government wanted to protect Malaysian industries, it imposed new taxes on Singapore. This hindered Singapore’s efforts to industrialise. </li></ul><ul><li>KL proposed Singapore increased its contribution from 40% to 60%. Singapore feared this would cripple its economy. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Political reasons – impact of the elections on the r/s betw PAP and the Alliance <ul><li>1963 State Election in Spore </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PAP won 37 out of 51 seats contested. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Singapore Alliance (made up of UMNO, MCA and MIC) did not win any seat. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alliance leaders in KL were upset with the outcome. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1964 Federal Election in Malaysia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PAP took part, aim to build a Malaysia not based on racial lines, equal opportunities for all. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alliance leaders took offence, felt it challenged rights of the Malays </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Racial Politics – Effects of the anti–PAP campaign <ul><li>UMNO embarked on an anti-PAP campaign using the Malay press, esp Utusan Melayu. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Criticised PAP for not looking after interests of the Malays in Singapore. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exploited resettlement of Malay families in the Crawford, Kampong Glam and Rochor areas. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Meetings were held betw PAP and Malay reps regarding education, employment and housing for Malays. Tension grew as matters did not improve. Led to the racial riots in 1964. </li></ul>
  6. 6. PAP’s Malaysian Malaysia campaign <ul><li>PAP campaigned for a Malaysian Malaysia, where everyone has equal rights and opportunities. </li></ul><ul><li>October 1964 The Singapore Alliance stated that they would reorganise themselves to win enough votes in the 1967 Singapore state election to form a new government. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Events and implications <ul><li>May 1965 PAP brought together four other Malaysian opposition parties to form Malaysian Solidarity Convention (MSC). </li></ul><ul><li>Aim for a Malaysian Malaysia where everyone would be treated equally regardless of race or religion. </li></ul><ul><li>PAP greatly angered UMNO leaders, some even called for the arrest of Lee Kuan Yew. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Threats to Singapore’s peace <ul><li>Internal threat – 1964 Racial riots </li></ul><ul><ul><li>21 July 1964 More than 25,000 Malays gathered at Padang to celebrate Prophet Mohammed’s birthday. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speeches were made by Malay leaders, some criticised PAP for ill-treatment of the Malays. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A policeman was assaulted in a procession in Geylang. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rest started attacking Chinese. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clashes between Chinese and Malays broke out in different parts of Singapore. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Continuation of racial riots <ul><ul><li>Curfew was imposed and only lifted on 2 nd Aug 1964. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>23 people were killled and 454 people injured in the riots. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sept 1964 – Another race riot occurred </li></ul><ul><ul><li>13 people were killed and 106 were injured. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. External Threat – The Indonesian Confrontation <ul><li>Indonesian trade embargo – Singapore’s trade declined and some people were unemployed. </li></ul><ul><li>However Singapore was not severly affected as trade with other countries continued. </li></ul><ul><li>Violence and disruption of peace </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Indonesian agents set off bombs – innocent people were killed and properties damaged. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By March 1965, 29 bombs had been set off in Singapore. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A voluntary Vigilant Corps was set up to help defend Singapore. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Confrontation ended in Aug 1966 when new Indonesian government took over. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Separation <ul><li>7 Aug 1965 Tunku Abdul Rahman announced that Malaysia will “expel” Singapore. </li></ul><ul><li>9 Aug 1965 Lee Kuan Yew announced attainment of full independence. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Singapore became a Republic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Head of State – the President </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legislative Assembly was renamed Parliament, members known as Members of Parliament. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Challenges ahead <ul><li>Economic – No natural resources and industries were not well-developed. </li></ul><ul><li>Defence – Singapore had to build up its own defence force to take over from the Malaysian and British military forces. </li></ul><ul><li>Housing – Steps had to be taken to meet the housing needs of its growing population. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Video <ul><li> </li></ul>Cartoon