Chapter 5 - How external events affect Singapore?


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How external events before WW II affect Singapore

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Chapter 5 - How external events affect Singapore?

  1. 1. Do you know that ….? <ul><li>Dolphins sleep with one eye open. </li></ul><ul><li>Soap Operas are so called because advertisements in the past during the show were centred around soap powder. </li></ul><ul><li>It is impossible to keep your eyes open when you sneeze. </li></ul><ul><li>Leonardo Da Vinci invented the scissors. </li></ul><ul><li>It is physically impossible for pigs to look at the sky. </li></ul><ul><li>Bookkeeper is the only English word that has three consecutive double letters. </li></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li>Your ears and nose continue to grow throughout your life. </li></ul><ul><li>Mosquitoes are attracted to people who have recently eaten bananas. </li></ul><ul><li>An ostrich’s eye is bigger than its brain. </li></ul><ul><li>There are no clocks in Las Vegas gambling casino. </li></ul><ul><li>You use an average of 43 muscles for a frown. </li></ul><ul><li>You use an average of 17 muscles for a smile. </li></ul><ul><li>Every 2000 frowns creates a wrinkle. </li></ul><ul><li>The list of ingredients that make a lipstick include fish scales. </li></ul><ul><li>Almost half of the bones in your body are in your hands and feet. </li></ul><ul><li>Donald Duck comics are banned from Finland because it does not wear pants. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>Can you think of any events or inventions in the 21 st century that had significant impact on our lives? </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transnational Terrorism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile phone </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. How did External Events before WW II affect Singapore?
  5. 5. Industrial Revolution (1750 – 1850) <ul><li>Invention of new machines & discovery of new sources of power to drive these machines. </li></ul><ul><li>It transformed the way people lived and worked. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Making cloth, invention of spinning wheel & steam engine. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New modes of traveling: railway train and steamships. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Implications of the new inventions <ul><li>Goods could be produced in large quantities cheaply and swiftly. </li></ul><ul><li>Raw materials were needed outside Europe. They began to seek new markets outside Europe as well. </li></ul><ul><li>People could travel longer distances in shorter period of time. </li></ul>
  7. 7. How was Singapore affected? <ul><li>More ships visited Singapore as more Europeans sailed to the East to obtain raw matrials and find markets to sell their goods. </li></ul><ul><li>Steamships stopped at Singapore to refuel and obtain food supplies from 1880s. </li></ul><ul><li>Communications improved. A letter which took 5 months to arrive from Europe now took only 5 weeks with the arrival of steamships. </li></ul><ul><li>Singapore came into closer contact with Britain and the rest of the world. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Suez Canal 1859 – 1869 <ul><li>Ships travelling between Europe and Asia had to sail around the southern tip of Africa, Cape of Good Hope. </li></ul><ul><li>This long and dangerous journey took 120 days from London in Britain to Singapore. </li></ul><ul><li>Traders sought to find a shorter route to Asia with the new need to find raw materials and new markets. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Suez Canal (2) <ul><li>French engineer, Ferdinand de Lesseps drew plan to build the canal. </li></ul><ul><li>Took 10 years, $200 million and 120 000 lives were sacrificed to complete the project. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Effect of the opening of the Canal on Singapore <ul><li>(Text p. 81) Journey from London to Singapore was shorten to 50 days compared to 120 days previously. </li></ul><ul><li>People, cargoes and mail took a shorter time to reach Singapore. </li></ul><ul><li>Cost of shipping was reduced as more frequent trips could be made and shorter time was needed. </li></ul><ul><li>Expansion of trade – volume of imports rose from 25 millions to 55 millions, exports rose from 15 millions to 43 millions. (1859 vs. 1869) –text p.82 </li></ul>
  11. 11. Effects of Opening of Canal on S’pore <ul><li>1852 – New harbour was built in S’pore. (known as Keppel harbour from 1900). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deep waters allowing bigger ships to sail right up to the harbour </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Islands of Pulau Ubin and Sentosa sheltered the harbour from strong winds and big waves. (text p.83) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1912 – Improvements made to the harbour provided better and faster services at the port. Singapore became one of the busiest ports in Asia. </li></ul>
  12. 12. World War I <ul><li>Central Powers vs. the Allied Powers. </li></ul>Germany Austria – Hungary Italy Bulgaria Ottoman Empire Britain Russia France Finland Albania Serbia Romania Portugal Greece
  13. 13. Effects of WW I on S’pore <ul><li>Frantic rush for food supply. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prices soared as a result. Govt forbade export of large quantities of food, increased rice imports and assured people. Things went back to normal after a few weeks. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sept 1914 - Arrival of German warship, Emden threatened trade and shipping in Singapore. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emden destroyed by Sydney in Nov 1914 off Cocos Islands. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Sepoy Mutiny 1915 <ul><li>Sepoys heard rumours that they would be sent to Europe or Turkey to fight against the Muslims. </li></ul><ul><li>They rebelled and went around killing Europeans in Singapore. </li></ul><ul><li>Put down after 10 days. </li></ul><ul><li>56 Sepoys, 3 Chinese and 2 Malay, and more than 40 Europeans (18 civilians) were killed. </li></ul><ul><li>41 Mutineers shot to death and 126 sentenced to jail. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Effect on Local Population <ul><li>No support from the locals. </li></ul><ul><li>Singaporean Indians did not take part in the mutiny. </li></ul><ul><li>Sikh police remained loyal to Britain. </li></ul><ul><li>Large number of Sepoys in the regiment did not take part. </li></ul><ul><li>British realised they cannot be careless about defence of S’pore, threat could come from within or outside Singapore. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Local help to Britain during WW I <ul><li>European volunteers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many sailed to Europe to fight the war and never came back. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Donation of fighter planes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tan Jiak Kim presented Malayan No. 21 to Britain. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Altogether 53 planes donated by Singaporeans and Malayans to fight WW I. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Local Help (2) <ul><li>Tan Jiak Kim contributed $18,000 to war funds. </li></ul><ul><li>Donations were collected, activities were carried out to raise funds. </li></ul><ul><li>Volunteers signed up to defend important places in Singapore. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Happenings in China <ul><li>1906 - Dr Sun Yat Sen started Tong Meng Hui in Singapore. </li></ul><ul><li>1911 – Fall of Qing Dynasty in China. </li></ul><ul><li>Dr Sun stopped by Singapore when he returned to China to become the provisional President. </li></ul><ul><li>Many Chinese donated money and signed up to join his revolutionary army to unite China. </li></ul>
  19. 19. The Great Depression 1920s <ul><li>Depression – great decrease in business activities, with widespread unemployment. </li></ul><ul><li>Singapore was greatly affected as demand for tin and rubber dropped sharply. </li></ul><ul><li>Companies suffered losses and retrenched workers. </li></ul><ul><li>Businessmen became bankrupt. </li></ul><ul><li>Widespread unemployment and hardship. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Great Depression (2) <ul><li>1930 – Govt passed law to restrict and reduce number of unskilled labourers coming into S’pore. Numbers unemployed were arranged to be sent back to China and India. </li></ul><ul><li>By 1934 – business improved and trade started to pick up again. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Conclusions <ul><li>As Singapore depend largely on its human resources and trade, external events will affect us to a large extent. </li></ul><ul><li>We need to stay receptive to change and be creative in order to survive and strive. </li></ul>