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Chapter 3
Chapter 3
Chapter 3
Chapter 3
Chapter 3
Chapter 3
Chapter 3
Chapter 3
Chapter 3
Chapter 3
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Chapter 3


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Contributions of early immigrants to Singapore

Contributions of early immigrants to Singapore

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  • 1. Chapter 3 Immigrants and their role in developing Singapore
  • 2. Who were the immigrants?
    • People of different races from different parts of the world who came immediately after Raffles founded Singapore.
    • Population swelled:
      • 1819 – a few hundreds of pirates and Orang Laut
      • 1824 – 10,683
      • 1891 – 181, 602
    • By 1840, the Chinese outnumbered the Malays.
    • The first people who came were the Malays and the Chinese from Malacca.
  • 3. Why did they come
    • Push factors
      • Lack of jobs in homeland.
      • Natural disasters.
      • Unrest in home country.
      • Famine
      • Poverty
    • Pull factors
      • Absence of restriction on immigrants.
      • Availability of jobs.
      • Business opportunities.
      • Free port
      • Security provided by the British government.
  • 4. Where did they come from?
    • Arabia – the Arabs who were mainly traders.
    • Europe – mainly the British, Dutch and the Portugese.
    • India – Tamils, Malayalees, Gujaratis, Sindhees and Parsees. Some were labourers and convicts, others were laundrymen, milkmen, moneylenders and money changers.
    • Sri Lanka – Tamil and Sinhalese.
    • China – Mainly from Fujian, Guangdong and Hainan Island.
    • Malacca and Penang – Peranakans (Straits-born Chinese).
    • Malay Archipelago – Malays, Javanese, Boyanese and Bugis.
  • 5. Factors that led to growth of trade
    • Political future assured by Anglo-Dutch Treaty which recognised Singapore as a British possession.
    • Free port – No import and export charges and port duties.
    • Its strategic location meant that it could attract traders from the east and west.
    • Private enterprise was encouraged and there were no monopolies.
  • 6. How trade was carried out?
    • Europeans established trading companies and agency houses.
    • They bought and sold goods through Chinese middlemen, usually Straits-born Chinese who were conversant in English and the local languages.
    • Goods sold include:
      • Cotton, woolen cotton, steel and glassware (from Europe)
      • Tea, silk, preserved foodstuff and household ware (China)
      • Elephant tusks, sugar, rice, rhinceros horns and buffalo skin ( SEAsia, Thailand and Indochina)
      • Pepper, bird’s nests, sago and camphor (Malay Archipelago)
  • 7. Read more about it!
    • Raffles’ Town Plan
  • 8. Which means……
  • 9. Point to ponder
    • ‘ To a large extent, Raffles was racist when he came up with the Raffles’ Town Plan.’ Do you agree? Explain your answer.
  • 10.
    • The End