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Constitutional convention and compromise1
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Constitutional convention and compromise1


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  • 1. How did the Constitution strengthen the US Government?We the people of theUnited States, in orderto form a more perfectunion, establish justice,insure domestictranquility, provide forthe common defense,promote the generalwelfare, and secure theblessings of liberty toourselves and ourposterity, do ordain andestablish thisConstitution for theUnited States ofAmerica.
  • 2. Constitutional ConventionShay’s Rebellion of 1787(1786) caused theframers to believe thatthe Articles ofConfederation wereineffective & needed tobe replacedDelegates gathered inPhiladelphia (1787) towrite a newConstitutionJames Madison leadsthe movement to writethe Constitution
  • 3. Conflict at the Constitutional ConventionDelegates disagreed on THREE key issues:– Representation– Slavery– Trade
  • 4. Conflict @ the Convention: Representation in the new CongressBig States vs. SmallStatesVirginia Plan– Representation based upon a states population (favored more populated states)New Jersey Plan– Each state had equal votes
  • 5. Compromise: RepresentationThe Great Compromise– Settled the representation conflict– Delegates created a 2 house (bicameral) legislature One house based upon population (House of Reps) A second house based upon equal votes per state (the United States Senate)
  • 6. Conflict: The Slavery Issue Southern states supported slavery – Wanted slaves to count for representation, but not for taxation Northern states – wanted slaves to count for taxation, not representation
  • 7. Compromise: The Slavery IssueThe Three Fifths Compromise:settles the Slavery Issue– 3 out of 5 slaves would be counted for both representation and taxation
  • 8. Conflict: The Trade Issue Southern delegates did not want an export or import tax (tariff). Northern delegates favored a tax on imports to help northern industries grow. This could hurt the South Compromise: Congress was given the power to tax imports, but not exportsThe South needed slavery for plantation labor. The North feared slave populations would be to high.Compromise- The importation of slaves would end 20 years from the ratification of the Constitution
  • 9. DEBATE ON RATIFICATIONFederalists argue for astrong federal system toreplace the Articles of Confederation(Madison/Hamilton/Jay)Anti-federalists believethat the new constitutionwould be too strong andcrush the Peoples rights(Henry & S. Adams)
  • 10. Compromise: Federalists vs. Anti-federalistsFederalists agree to add a Bill of Rights to thenew ConstitutionThe Addition of the BOR allowed Anti-Feds toagree to ratify the new ConstitutionThe Constitution was ratified in 1789
  • 11. The 1st Chief Executive George Washington was chosen to be the first President The BOR, System of Checks & Balances/Written Constitution all help create Limited Government Electing officials to act as Representatives creates Representative Government
  • 12. The U.S. ConstitutionThe New Constitution: allowed for a separateexecutive branch (the President), a separatejudicial branch (the Supreme Court), and atwo-house legislative branch (the Congress).
  • 13. The Federal System/Division of PowerPower was divided between Stategovernments and the FederalGovernment
  • 14. Powers RESERVED for Both State &Federal Powers: states: Federal:•Armed Forces •Building roads •Health & Safety matters•Coining money •Borrowing money •Marriage/divorce•Regulated trade •Collecting taxes laws•Making treaties •Operating courts •Business regulation •Licensing of professions
  • 15. 15th Amendment--gave voting rights to freed slaves after the civil war.19th Amendment--gave women the right to vote.Example: The Necessary & Proper clause has been used to regulate industries that were unseen in 1789:auto industry, telecommunications, airline safety ECT...Brown v Board of Ed. allowing for the desegregation of schools
  • 16. Th U r C tion e nwitten onstitu The Unwritten Constitution refers to traditions that have become part of our political system.
  • 17. The Unwritten Constitution -Political Parties are not written into the Constitution -The Primary responsibility for political parties is to nominate candidates for office -George Washington warned against the formation of political parties.
  • 18. The Unwritten ConstitutionPresident Washingtonappointed Cabinetmembers to help himrun the government.All presidents havefollowed this traditionThe presidentialcabinet is NOT writtenin the Constitution
  • 19. Unwritten ConstitutionPresident Washingtonserved 2 terms andretiredThe 2 term traditionbecame part of theUnwritten ConstitutionFDR broke with tradition,2 terms has since beenwritten into theConstitution through theamendment process.
  • 20. How did the U.S. Constitution Strengthen the U.S. Government? It created a strong national/federal government that allowed the newnation to function as one independent country, created a three branch government (which included a Chief Executive) & preserved the Enlightenment principles of representative government & limited government