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  • 1. Types of Governments
  • 2. To study governments, geographers look at the following:
    • Types – Who rules and who participates.
    • Systems – How the power is distributed.
  • 3. Types of Government are based on one key question: Who governs and what is the citizen participation ?
    • There are three types of governments:
      • Autocracy, Oligarchy, and Democracy
  • 4. Autocracy
    • Government in which the power to govern is held by one person.
    • Generally the power to rule is inherited or by military force.
    • There are three
    • types of Autocracy.
  • 5. #1 Dictatorship
    • The leader has not been elected and uses force to control all aspects of social and economic life.
    • Examples: Adolf Hitler in Germany and Joseph Stalin in the Soviet Union
  • 6. #2 Absolute Monarchy
    • A monarchy has a king, queen, emperor or empress.
    • The power is usually inherited or passed down from family members.
    • The monarch has absolute power meaning they can make all decisions without consulting anyone.
  • 7. #3 Constitutional Monarchy
    • Kings, queens or emperors share power with elected legislatures.
    • Generally the Kings are nothing more than figureheads.
    • The government is a democratic one that limits the monarchs power.
    • Example: Great Britain
  • 8. Oligarchy
    • A government in which a few people such as a dominant clan or clique have power.
    • The group gets their power from either military, wealth or social status.
    • Elections may be held but offer
    • only one candidate.
    • Examples: Greek city states
  • 9. Democracy
    • In a democracy, the government is “Rule by the people”
    • There are two forms of democracy
      • Direct Democracy – People vote on all the issues.
      • Representative Democracy – People elect representatives and give them the power to vote on issues.
        • Example: United States
  • 10. In a democracy….
    • Individual freedom and equality is valued.
    • Free elections are held
    • Decisions are based on majority rule.
    • All candidates can express their views freely.
    • Citizens vote by secret ballot.
  • 11. Democratic Governments
    • There are two major forms of democratic governments:
      • Parliamentary
      • Presidential
  • 12. Parliamentary Democracy
    • Voters elect members to the Parliament (legislature)
    • Parliament has two Houses:
      • House of Commons : The Political Party with the most votes in the House of Commons chooses the Prime Minister , the government ’ s leader with no set length of term.
      • House of Lords: Little power with most members being nobles having inherited their titles
  • 13. Presidential Democracy
    • Voters elect legislators
    • Voters elect (indirectly) the president.
      • Therefore, in the presidential system voters have a more direct say about those who serve in two branches of the government :
        • Legislative
        • Executive
  • 14. Executive Legislative Citizens Citizens Legislative Executive Elect Elect Select Elect Parliamentary System Presidential System
  • 15. Putting it all together….
    • The United Kingdom is an autocratic constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary democracy and a unitary system.
    • The United States is a presidential democracy with a federal system.
    • What do those statements mean?
  • 16. What do you remember?
    • What are the three types of governments?
    • What are the three systems of government?