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World History Chapter 4.1 Presentation. Please review for your records.
World History Chapter 4.1 Presentation. Please review for your records.
Do Now!• Read through the document on your desk• Label the blank map with appropriate Cities, Islands and Seas
ANCIENT GREECE • Region of isolated valleys, hills, small plains, peninsulas, and islands – Sea formed its focal point • Nothing more than barbarous fringe area to older civilizations of the Middle East – Tiny, unimportant, and poor in natural resources
Greece also benefited from its position on the edge of the civilized world Far enough away to escape domination by the various Middle Eastern Empires butclose enough to absorb the rich culture of its eastern neighbors
FIRST GREEKS• Either were Neolithic farmers who migrated from Asia Minor around 3000 BC• Or were an Indo-European tribe from southern Russia who migrated into the region around 2300 BC• In either case, when people did arrive in the peninsula, they soon came into contact with an already civilized people who lived on the nearby island of Crete – The Minoans
MINOAN CIVILIZATION • Neolithic settlements date back to 4000 BC – Early farmers probably came into contact with Middle Eastern civilization around 3000 BC • Had developed an advanced civilization of their own by 2000 BC – Expressed in the construction and decoration of huge palace complexes • Largest one at Knossos
MINOAN PALACE COMPLEXES • Complicated structures consisting of a honeycomb of various rooms surrounding a large courtyard • Huge – Knossos covered three acres • Well-built – Strong foundations meant to withstand earthquakes • Many rooms decorated with brightly colored frescoes that depicted various aspects of Minoan life – Know from them that men were clean shaven and generally wore short kilts – Women had elaborate hair-dos and wore dresses with wide sleeves and pinched-in waists
MINOAN WRITING • Developed alphabet around 1700 BC – Linear A – Not yet deciphered • Switched to alphabet called Linear B around 1450 BC – Mostly used perishable writing materials • None of which has survived – But also sometimes wrote on clay tablets using this alphabet • Have been deciphered • Tells us quite a bit about their society and culture
MINOAN COMMERCE • Palaces controlled the commercial, agricultural, and manufacturing activities of surrounding regions • Commerce was very important – Acted as trade intermediary between civilized and barbarian worlds • Exported wool, olive oil and timber in exchange for other raw materials and luxury items – Built large and technologically advanced merchant and military navy
MINOAN WOMEN • Women played important role in society – Most of their gods were female • Headed by the so-called “Snake Goddess” – Women also portrayed at the head of processions and as participants in athletic events • Even bull-leaping • May not have been a matriarchy but women nonetheless enjoyed a prominent social position
END OF MINOAN CIVILIZATION• Civilization came to an end between 1450 and 1350 BC – All palaces destroyed and never rebuilt• Theory 1 – Invaded by Mycenaeans in 1400 BC • Destroyed Crete to eliminate Minoans as trade rivals• Theory 2 – Massive volcanic eruption on island of Thera showered Crete with debris, ash, and poison gas • Destroyed fleets with tidal waves • Mycenaeans arrived after catastrophe and destroyed what was left
MYCENEAN AGE• 1600-1150 BC• Had some contact with Minoan civilization by at least 1600 BC• Typical of the very warlike, semi-barbarian cultures that extended over most of Europe – Only difference was that contact with Minoans gradually ameliorated some of their barbarism and allowed them to develop a more sophisticated culture
MYCENEAN CIVILIZATION EMERGES• Assimilation of Minoan culture was complete by 1400 BC – About the time that they invade and destroyed Crete – Took the place of Minoans as commercial middlemen between civilized Middle East and barbarian Europe – Began to build huge palaces at Mycenae, Tiryns, Athens, Thebes, and Pylos
MYCENEAN PALACES • Palaces served as central meeting places – Home for the king and his administrators – Warehouse for agricultural and manufactured products – Marketplace – Communications center • Also served as religious centers – Crowded with priests and priestesses
RELIGION AND CULTURE • Great Mother goddess was major god – Derived from Minoan Snake Goddess – But Myceneans also began to emphasize male gods • Zeus, Poseidon, Hermes, and Apollo • Borrowed heavily from Minoans – Wrote in Linear B on clay tablets – Painted frescoes on palace walls – Carved in ivory and stone – Made elaborate seals
DAWN OF THE “DARK AGE”• All Mycenean palaces destroyed around 1250 BC – Except one at Athens – Survivors moved to Attica or moved overseas • Greece only contained 10% of its former population by 1200 BC – Trade network collapsed – Art and culture lost• Greece entered a period of severe economic, social, and technological backwardness – Dark Age (1200-800 BC)
CAUSES• Period in which Mycenean kingdoms fell was one of general unrest – Lybians and Sea Peoples attacked Egypt – Sea Peoples destroyed Hittite Empire – Pirates roamed the eastern Mediterranean – Mycenean palaces came under tremendous pressure• Palaces destroyed over a long period – Perhaps victims of different groups of invaders arriving at different times – Small, vicious groups of raiding parties brought about downfall of Mycenean civilization • Not a single, massive migration of new people
THE DARK AGE Although generallyisolated and backward,Iron, for example, came the Dark Age use see into general did forsomeweapons and and technological cultural innovations People who fled Greeceagricultural implements settled on Aegean that would create foundation for future Islands, coast of Asia Greek civilization Minor, and elsewhere, forming base for prosperous city-states that would develop there
ORAL LITERARY TRADITION • Dark Age was the firm establishment of an oral tradition that recounted a glorious and heroic past – Thanks to wandering minstrels – Tradition would culminate with the magnificent epic poems of Homer • Iliad and Odyssey • Composed at the end of the Dark Age
EPIC POEMS • All epic poems have common theme – Recounting the deeds of superhuman heroes of earlier times – Served function of providing a legendary history which explained how people got where they were and why • Greek epic poems had developed the plots of the siege of Troy and various Heracles legends in centuries before Homer – Wandering poets used these basic plots but embellishedHeracles them in order to appeal to their particular audience
WORLD OF THE ILIAD AND ODYSSEY• In terms of values and attitudes, Homer was describing the late Dark Age – Imposed values, attitudes, and motivations of his own age on historical characters• World he described was made up of tiny, autonomous political units – Each self-sufficient and inward- looking – Each ruled by a chieftain • Main job was to protect his Mask of Agamemnon, people from constant outside king of Argos aggression
VALUES• Chieftains were military men par excellence – The values they prized most highly were military virtues • Physical strength, endurance, bravery, selflessness • Any sign of weakness opened the door to his neighbors to take advantage of him – Explains almost childish sensitivity of Homer’s heroes to insults and their continual bellicosity
EXPLANATION • Obsessive concern with “face” supplied motive power to Homer’s plots – Later Greeks amazed at juvenile behavior of Homer’s heroes • Given the precarious nature of life in Greece during the Dark Age – And given the fact that a community’s survival depended on the unblemished reputation of their chieftain • The actions of the Greeks against the Trojans becomes understandable
END OF THE DARK AGE • Greece broke out of its narrow isolation due to influence of Phoenician merchants around 800 BC – Related to Canaanites – Renewed Greek contacts with Middle East through trade • Evidence is extensive – Greeks adopted Phoenician/Canaanite alphabet – Established trade contacts with Phoenician city-states in Syria
HOPLITES• Dark Age military chieftain and his cronies based their power on their military prowess and ownership of land• With rise of wealth based on commerce new men from outside the landowning clique began to demand military participation – Began to arm themselves and found that when they worked together as a team, nothing could stand in their way
PHALANX • New form of warfare – Units of armed infantry working together as a block – Replaced old dependence on the military chieftain – Security of community no longer depended on power and skill of chieftain but on the massed strength of the hoplites • What counted now was the willingness of citizens to cooperate together in battle for the greater good of their city – Numbers and community spirit became more important than individual bravado
ATHENS AND SPARTA • Influence of trade-generated wealth, stimulation provided by renewal of contacts with outside world, and the challenge of hoplites to aristocratic dominance acted together to dissolve Dark Age society – Ultimately resulted in a new kind of society in Greece • Athens and Sparta illustrate process – Both their solutions to changes and challenges associated with end of the Dark Age were radical but also very different
Closure• In a group of 3-4, create a short 5 question quiz.• Include the answers and be prepared to stump your classmates.• Make #1 the easiest and #5 the toughest!