The Inca


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The Inca

  1. 1. 1438-1525
  2. 2. Who were the Incas?  The Inca were a group of people who lived in what is now modern day Peru in South America  They built their empire in the rugged terrain of the Andes Mountains  They existed between 1438 and 1525 around the same time as the Aztecs
  3. 3. Tough Terrain  The Andes is an area of geographic extremes:  Tropical Rainforests  Fertile Valleys  Some of the highest mountains in the world  Highland plateau lies between two mountain ranges
  4. 4. Adapting to Tough Terrain  Settled in a fertile  The tough terrain made mountain valley more than 11.000 feet above sea level  Founded their capital city Cuzco  The Inca spread their territory throughout the 1400’s  Pachacuti became emperor in 1438 it difficult to rule  Cities were almost impossible to grow  Cuzco probably held no more than 25,000 people and Machu Picchu only housed around 1,000
  5. 5. How did the Inca rule?  The Incas took several steps to control and govern their people:  Subjects were divided into family groups  Required to learn Quechua language and worship the Incan gods
  6. 6. Daily lives of the Inca  Incan farmers adapted to the difficult terrain – terraced hillsides and built irrigation  Communication was difficult – chasquis carried messages up and down the length of the empire  Members of society were asked to perform a few days of labor each year  Inca had a moneyless economy – trade was in the form of barter or exchanges of goods and services – Trade was limited and controlled by the government
  7. 7.  Nobles ran the Incan Society  Two Main Groups  Nobles  Commoners government, controlled the army, and enjoyed a rich life style of life  Most commoners (with the exception of artists) were farmers and fisherman –performed basic tasks like growing crops for everyone  Once someone was born into a class they stayed in a class
  8. 8. Incan Religion  Believed that their emperor was the son of the sun god Inti – the most important god  Built many temples  Priests were performed rituals such as animal sacrifices and the occasional human sacrifice
  9. 9. Warfare and the Mighty Incan Army  Nearly 200,000 strong  It was so frightening that the emperor often had only to ask neighboring peoples to join the empire  Soldiers were commoners – some were prisoners of war
  10. 10. Incan Record Keeping  No form of writing  Used a counting tool called quipu – cord with knotted rope with various lengths tied to it  Preserved legacy through oral tradition and another type of quipu
  11. 11. Roads  Built a huge network of roads and highways 14,000 miles  Built tunnels through hills  Built forts, palaces, and temples from huge stone blocks put together without mortar  Artisans made jewelry, and figurines out of precious metals
  12. 12. Fall of the Incan Empire  Invaded by the Spanish  The empire was weakened by unrest – Atahualpa won the      throne by defeating his brother in a bitter civil war that began in 1527 1532 Francisco Pizarro arrived at an Incan port The Spanish tricked the Incan emperor, kidnapped and executed him The conquered people of the Incan empire rebelled By 1535 Spanish controlled most of the Incan lands – enslaved many, killed millions with dieseases Last Incan ruler was defeated in `1572