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The crusades
The crusades
The crusades
The crusades
The crusades
The crusades
The crusades
The crusades
The crusades
The crusades
The crusades
The crusades
The crusades
The crusades
The crusades
The crusades
The crusades
The crusades
The crusades
The crusades
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The crusades

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  • 1. 11th -13th Centuries Enduring Understanding: Warfare can spread new ideas that have a lasting impact on the way people live.
  • 2.  11-15th Centuries - Monarchies and The Roman Catholic Church increasing in power  Politically –  Ties to nobility  Supported one another  Helped run kingdoms  Very wealthy – earned income from property  The pope was more wealthy than monarchs  Authority often greater than monarchs
  • 3.  Caused by the power of the Church  11th Century – King Henry IV questioned the authority of Pope Gregory VII  Henry appointed church officials – wanted control over church officials  Pope Gregory – “only the Pope can appoint officials”  Henry tried to gain support and reduce the power of Pope – Henry didn’t have much support  Henry had to beg forgiveness from the Pope  Example of how powerful the church was
  • 4.  The Crusades were a series of military expeditions between Europe and Palestine in the 11th – 13th Centuries
  • 5.  Jerusalem was and still is sacred to the Jews, Christians, and the Muslims  In 1071, the Seljuk Turks captured Jerusalem and made Christian pilgrimages nearly impossible  European princes used success in warfare as one way to gain power and merchants were willing to finance their crusades for profit  Finally, the Turks advanced onto the Byzantine capital of Constantinople and the emperor asked the Pope for help
  • 6.  1096 the Pope responded and the 1st Crusade began  Several European armies started out for the Byzantine capital of Constantinople with the plan of attacking Palestine  Many Crusaders will ill equipped and died along the way, or captured and enslaved  However, the Crusader force was stills Strong enough to attack Palestine
  • 7.  Christian forces captured the cities of Nicaea and Antioch and by 1099 they captured Jerusalem  The Christians divided the conquered land into 4 Crusader states: Edessa, Antioch, Tripoli, and Jerusalem
  • 8.  Cause: Began after Muslim Turks recaptured the Crusader state of Edessa in 1144  Effect: French and German forces traveled to Palestine, but were weakened along the way. Muslim forces defeated the European armies in Damascus  Christians kept control over the other Crusader kingdoms because Muslim leadership in the region was conflicted
  • 9.  In the late 1100’s the disagreements came to an end with the rise of Salah-al-din  As a child Saladin (as the Europeans called him) was more interested in studying Islam than learning about war  He eventually joined his uncle in Egypt where he defended the area against the Crusaders  After the battle he became the leader of Egyptian government  Saladin unified Muslims in the region and then he turned his attention towards the Crusaders posted in Jerusalem  In 1187, Saladin gathered an army and recaptured Jerusalem
  • 10.  After the fall of Jerusalem some of Europe’s most powerful leaders went on a third Crusade- including Richard the Lion- Hearted of England  The Crusaders were successful at first, but they did not achieve their goal of recapturing Jerusalem
  • 11.  1192 Richard and Saladin reached a truce:  Jerusalem would remain under Muslim control. However, in return, Saladin agreed to allow Christians pilgrims to visit the Holy City
  • 12.  The truce did not last and the 4th Crusade was launched in 1202  To pay Italian traders for transporting troops, the Crusaders agreed to attack the Byzantine city of Zora  The Crusaders sacked (destroyed) Constantinople to put a political ally back in charge of the Byzantine Empire  THE POPE WAS FURIOUS  The Crusaders did not continue their crusade and the Byzantine empire was weakened
  • 13.  Europe began more Crusades, but by 1270, the Muslims had driven the Crusaders out of Palestine, and the wars ended  The Crusades did not have a permanent effect on the Muslims in Palestine  Christian traders remained in Palestine and European pilgrims continued to visit their religions Holy Land
  • 14.  European contact with other cultures grew and Crusaders brought back Asian goods resulting in increased trade  Increased trade resulted in increased wealth and the growth of cities – Urban merchants became increasingly important in Europe
  • 15.  Hostility towards Jews increased –  On their way to the battles Crusaders attacked and massacred European Jews and continued to kill Jews once they reached Palestine  1290 – Jews were expelled from England  1306- Jews were expelled from France and again in 1394  Muslims allowed Jews and Christians to live in peace in most cases
  • 16.  In Spain, Christian armies drove out Muslim rulers  In the early 700’s Muslims conquered the Iberian Peninsula  By the 1000’s, however, Muslim unity on the Peninsula broke down and Spanish and Portuguese kingdoms rose to defeat the Muslim forces
  • 17.  King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella unified Spain through military and religious authority  Their armies captured cities and their church officials used a court to punish the people opposed to Church teachings – the court was called the Inquisition  Many Jews and Christians were tortured and executed by the Inquisition. They forced out the last Muslim and Jewish leaders in 1492.

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