AP EXAM PREP PART ILast-minute reminders about what you should know and how you can prove it.
SUCCESSFUL WRITERS DO THE FOLLOWING Use a wide range vocabulary appropriately and effectively Use a variety of sentence structures Use a logical organization enhanced by specific techniques to increase coherence such as judicious repetition, strong transitions, and appropriate emphasis Use a balance of generalization and specific illustrative detail Use effective rhetoric and a controlling tone. They establish and maintain a voice. They achieve appropriate emphasis through diction and sentence structure. High Scoring Essays use analogies, complex sentence patterns, rhetorical questions, parallelism, figurative language, etc. They demonstrate critical thinking and avoid logical fallacies.
THE ESSAYS:• You will have a total of two hours to write the essays.• You will be given 15 minutes to read all three essay sections.• Underline the prompt task.• Annotate the text.• Each essay carries the same weight, so do not spend an inappropriate amount of time on any one essay.• Write the time that you must be finished for each (40 minutes).
INTRO, QUOTES, TONE• Your introduction and conclusion need not be more than 2-3 lines. Make sure you have a clear thesis with 2-4 points at the end of your introduction.• Keep your quotes short. A direct quote of more than one or two lines of text is too much - remember the “six word” rule. You need not always write out the actual quotations; use ellipses to get to the heart of your analysis.• Have an appropriate tone. Do not use a conversational or informal tone, “you most likely know people like this,” “there is a lot of junk in the world.” These are academic essays.
THESIS/POSITIONHave a clear thesis/position that directly addresses the task ofthe prompt and lists your 2-4 major ideas. You must use these“big” ideas for the topic sentence of each paragraph. The ideasneed to be listed from weakest to strongest. Your paragraphsshould follow the order of the ideas in the thesis. Many peoplehad a lengthy first body paragraph, but their 2nd and 3rd bodyparagraphs were short and weak. Be consistent.
MISCELLANY• You must write neatly and legibly. If your cursive is too small or ornate, print. If you tend to write small, write larger so that you will have an appearance of more length.• Use transitions. Many reverted back to first, next, lastly or used none. You may hate initially, furthermore, ultimately, for example, for instance, additionally, however, indeed, similarly, likewise, in contrast, but they improve your writing dramatically,• All essays of 6 or higher have been at least 2 ½ pages long, and many are 3 or 4.
USE AP LANGUAGE• syntax for sentence structure• diction for word choice• parallelism for similar grammatical structure• Repetition• Counterargument• Rebuttal• imagery for language appealing to five senses• tone for the attitude of the piece• Juxtaposition• Antithesis• sophisticated vocabulary (demonstrates, illustrates, exhibits, mechanisms, strategies, devices, elemen ts, utilizes, elaborates, emphasizes, fosters, etc.)
AIM FOR A 9!• Don’t be baffled by the complexity of the passage. You are smart and you know how language works.• Take a position on whatever argument and synthesis prompts that they give you.• Remember: Sophisticated language, sophisticated argument.
SYNTHESIS• Underline your specific task in the prompt. Don’t veer from the path.• 15 minutes: peruse the sources and make notes about how each source fits into the assigned topic. Does it support it? It is against it? Does it offer an interesting insight?• Take a position. You cannot qualify on this prompt. Even if it says “qualify,” essays are stronger when they choose a side. Your reader should know exactly where you stand by the end of your essay.• They Say, I Say: The best essays addressed the counterargument/counter-position in the first body paragraph (or introduction) and then built their position and support in the next three paragraphs. They briefly mentioned the counterargument in the conclusion or last body paragraph but the essay clearly demonstrated one position.
SOURCES AND OPINIONS Don’t simply summarize the sources. Have a position and develop yourposition by incorporating and analyzing the sources. You must use and citeat least 3 sources. Your 3-4 body paragraphs should not each be about one source but insteadshould discuss an idea from your thesis incorporating the different sources. Don’t be intimidated. You have an opinion. Imagine Oprah asked you foryour position on the topic or someone offered you a million dollars for yourposition; you would find something to say.
ARGUMENT Underline your key task. Brainstorm ideas to Defend(agree), Challenge (disagree), and Qualify (both can be true). Think of “Big World” examples found in our history and theworld today. Think of “big” and complex issues that require a criticalmind. Address the counterargument in the first paragraph orintroduction (They Say, I Say) . Use the next 3 paragraphs to buildyour position.
ARGUMENTAcademic arguments useclaims, evidence, counter arguments, and rebuttals;rants use only passion and loaded language. A rant isNOT an effective argument.Never, ever insult your reader.
RHETORICAL ANALYSIS This essay will ask you to analyze the rhetorical strategies used Remember rhetorical strategies includediction, syntax, imagery, choice of detail, structure, tone, figurativelanguage (simile, metaphor, personification), rhetoricalquestions, parallelism, denotation andconnotation, allusions, juxtaposition, antithesis, repetition, chargedwords (tyrant), word sound (euphonious-hearth, aroma ANDcacophonous-pus, barf), etc.
RHETORICAL PRECISBegin with the rhetorical precis (4 sentences).1. [Author, genre, and title] asserts/argues/suggests/implies/claims THAT________________________________________. (WHAT)
RHETORICAL PRECIS2. An explanation of how the author develops and/orsupports the thesis (for instance, comparing andcontrasting, narrating, illustrating, defining, using humoror sarcasm, relating personal experience, usingexamples, etc.), usually in chronological order – alwaysidentifying the rhetorical mode(s) employed. (HOW)
RHETORICAL PRECIS3. [Statement of the author’s purpose]_______________________ in order to[Explain what the author wants the audience to door feels as a result of reading the work]_____________________________. (WHY)
RHETORICAL PRECIS4. A description of the intended audienceand/or the relationship the author establisheswith that audience and the tone the author uses.(TO WHOM)
Don’t simply use one line from the text as an “example” in eachparagraph and don’t simply describe where/what the elements are. Youshould have multiple examples from the texts in your paragraph.Elaborate on your examples and say why the author used thisdevice and how it impacts the piece. Never say the author used adevice without giving an example. At the same time, limit your quotes.You should not have a paper that simply rewrites everything in theprompt.
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